Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Tragic Death of Gizi Bajor ]

GERLINGER Imre

FEBRUARY 14, 2014

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2014;24(01-02)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Our body as an ecosystem, or the „brave new world” of metagenomics]

FALUS ANDRÁS, BARCS István, DUDA Ernő

[Micro-organisms (e.g. bacteria) are generally associated with diseases. We rarely consider that these organisms are living creatures, which pursue to survive and reproduce themselves. Obviously, they are dependent on and also have an active impact on their living environment. This interaction might be beneficial but also harmful - a situation they try to avoid. This complex network represents an extremely complicated multi-directional control, the disruption of which may result in serious diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Eighth Church ]

NAGY Zsuzsanna

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Effect of lactulose in minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients]

LIPTÁK Judit

Lege Artis Medicinae

[How to detect it? Dementia screening in primary care]

KÁLMÁN János, PAPP Edina, PÁKÁSKI Magdolna

[The early stage of dementia, the diagnostic and clinical importance of prodromal stages of dementia have been increasingly recognised in the past few years. Nowa - days, simple, rapid, easy to use cognitive screening tests are available, such as the recently developed Early Mental Test and the standardised Mini-Mental State Exami - nation, Clock Drawing Test, which could help general practicioners in the recommended regular dementia screening. The aim of this review is to help general practicioners understand the nature and importance of prodromal and manifest stages of dementia syndromes, and to summarise the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of dementia screening tests that can be used in primary care. In addition, practical hints are also integrated regarding the diagnosis, screening and referral of persons with high risk for dementia.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The health prevention role of the forest]

SEREGI János, LELOVICS Zsuzsanna, BALOGH László, PAPP Lajos

[The government attaches great importance to the health conservation and protection role of the forest. National forestry manages the vast majority of the forest parks in the country, without their effort these popular places have been destroyed a long time ago. Forest parks attract crowds of people, jut in suburban forests of the capital city ten million people visit in each year. Beside the introduction of their purpose and function in health prevention, authors aimed to summary the consequences of doing sport in the nature, especially in the forest. The fact confirmed by medicine that 20-30 minutes long exercising multiplies cardiac function and cause at least a bit difficulty in breathing, improve the physical fitness in healthy people. The same is true for walking and hiking as well. It is well known that fresh air, sunshine, exercise in diverse environment have favorable effects on physical and mental conditions physically active lifestyle is an important factor in health.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Vinpocetin in neurological diseases]

SZAPÁRY László, KÉSMÁRKY Gábor, TÓTH Kálmán, MISNYOVSZKY Melinda, TÓTH Tímea, BALOGH Ágnes, NAGY Krisztián, NÉMETH György, FEHÉR Gergely

[Introduction - Stroke is the third leading cause of death worldwide (following cardiovascular and cancer mortality) and associated with serious disability for the vast majority of patients. There is no salvage therapy for irreversibly damaged brain areas, improving the circulation of the surrounding hypoperfused territories may be associated with benefitial clinical states. Cerebral hypoperfusion may play a role in the pathogenesis of other kind of neurological diseases, improvement of global circulation may have a preventive effect on these conditions. Aims - The aim of our study was to review the experimental and clinical articles focusing on the role of vinpocetin in different neurological conditions. Results - Vinpocetin appears to have several different mechanisms of action that allow for its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, vasodilating, antiepileptic and neuroprotective activities in experimental conditions. On the other hand, several meta-analysis of the existing studies in acute stroke examining short and long term fatality rates with vinpocetin was unable to assess efficacy. In chronic cerebrovascular patients, vinpocetin improves impaired hemorheological variables, has significant vasodilating properties, improves endothelial dysfunction, neuroimaging studies showed selective increase in cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate, all of which are potentially beneficial in cerebrovascular disease and may improve cognitive functions. Summary - Based on the above mentioned results vinpocetin plays an important role both in basic research and in clinical management of different neurological diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[BREAST CANCER CARE: FROM PREVENTION TO SURVEILLANCE]

KAHÁN Zsuzsanna

[Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in developed countries. The development of most breast cancers is related to various hormonal effects, while 10% is associated with inherited gene mutations. Most of the primary prevention methods aim at decreasing the effects of hormones, but education on proper lifestyle is also an important risk-lowering method. The primary treatment of early breast cancer is usually breast-conserving surgery, either with the targeted removal of regional lymph nodes (by sentinel lymph node labelling) or with axillary block-dissection. The aim of postoperative radiotherapy is the eradication of the tumour cells left behind. Beside the locoregional tumour control this also plays a role in the prevention of recurrence or a secondary systemic dissemination. Adjuvant systemic treatments are used for the eradication of disseminated microscopic tumour foci. The use of modern adjuvant treatments may reduce death from the disease by up to 50%. The risks of relapse or death may be estimated based on established prognostic factors. While in low-risk patients it is not worth starting medical treatment, especially in view of the side effects, while in other cases chemo- or hormonal therapy may save the patient's life. The choice of the medical treatment should also depend on the patient's general health, the concomittant diseases and her preferences. The collaboration of the various specialists involved in the care of breast cancer patients can best take place at specialised breast centres that are equipped with the necessary technical basis, knowledge and professional experience.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Practical questions of early diagnosis and prevention of cerebrovascular disease are highly important for all internists]

NAGY Judit, SZAPÁRY László, KOVÁCS Tibor, KÉSŐI István, TÓTH Péter, SÁGI Balázs, VAS Tibor, KOLLER Ákos, WITTMANN István, KISS István, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Stroke is the third most frequent cause of death and the most important cause of disability and dependency worldwide. There are marked differences in the incidence, prevalence and mortality between the populations of Eastern and Western Europe. In Hungary, between 1998-2003, the incidence of stroke was 1,5-2 times higher than in the Western part of the continent. The early recognition of signs and symptoms of TIA and stroke and the urgent transportation of the patient to neurology, preferably to the nearest stroke-center are the key points of successful treatment, reduction of consequences and increased survival. The “time is brain” concept means that the management of TIA/stroke patients should be considered as emergency. This review briefly summarizes the epidemiology, key elements of the etiology, risk factors, up-to-dated diagnosis, primary and secondary prevention and treatment of TIA/stroke to provide information regarding the development of this field targeting the optimal management of TIA/stroke patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Mazes and compass in prognostic value of cardiovascular risk factors]

KÉKES Ede, KISS István

[The risk assessment of cardiovascular disease is dispensable in everyday practice, because this disease-group gives the high-est death rates all over the world - in developed countries, in Central European Region, including Hungary. Based on reliable surveys world side, we need in addition to coronary heart disease, stroke has been reckoned today to peripheral vascular disease, type-2 diabetes, and chronic kidney diseases as well. It seems useful to the new name i.e., atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. It stands as smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia risk factors among this group of diseases in the background, but more and more importance is given to visceral obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and psycho-social status. It has to count with the fact that the individual factors together and appear further worsen to mortality rate. The greatest interference arises because the cardiovascular risk estimation proposed by embodiments of non-uniform principles. Undoubtedly, the resolution of ACC/AHA 2010 was the first correct compass, because the classification and utility values of the factors precisely regulated. But in addition, it is essential that in the risk assessment not only the “global estimation” (tables, other forms) will be conducted, but also other important parameters characterizing the extended factors (vascular structure, obesity, psycho-social status, etc.) - set schedule and regulations - acting on to be carried out. We presented in cardiovascular risk assessment methodology and the most profitable methods of estimation based on the preventive guidelines, extern opinions generally accepted now and own experiences. We propose to modify the risk assessment me-thod.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The impact of prolonged hunger strike: clinical and laboratory aspects of twenty-five hunger strikers]

D Kirbas, N Sutlas, DY Kuscu, N Karagoz, O Tecer, U Altun

[Background - Hunger strike is a very serious entity which may lead to severe diseases and death. Aims - The aim of this study is to document the clinical, neurophysiological, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological aspects of prolonged hunger strike. Material and method - We investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 25 hungerstrikers hospitalized during refeeding process. One sample t-test, independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney and Pearson correlation tests were used for statistical analyses. Results - Twelve of them had a continuous hunger strike ranging between 190-366 days. The other 13 had quitting intervals for various reasons with a continuous hunger ranging between 65-265 days with a total hunger duration of 153-382 days. The mean loss of body mass index (BMI) was 40.98±9.3%. Imbalance, sleep disorders, somatosensory disturbances, and adynamia were the most common complaints. At admission, one third experienced ophtalmoparesis, about half of them had paresis, one quarter had truncal ataxia. At discharge 16% had persistant ophtalmoparesis and 36% nystagmus. Only four patients (16%) could walk independently. There was no serious MRI, EEG findings. Most prominent EMG findings were the decrease in median and sural nerve cnap, median and fibulary cmap, and fibulary ncv values. They showed mild impairment in MMTS and most of them had attention deficit and frontal type memory impairment. Conclusion - It can be concluded that vitamin B intake, independent of the quantity and timing, lowers the morbidity and mortality of hunger strikers.]