Specialities

Endocrinology

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 01, 2000

[Molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure]

MIKALA Gábor, PETŐ Mónika, VÁLYI Nagy István, CSÁSZÁR Albert

[In this review, the most important molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac muscle hypertrophy and consequentially to heart failure are detailed. In numerous instances, understanding molecular mechanisms offers the possibility for pharmacotherapeutic intervention. First, trimeric G-proteins and their attached intracellular signaling pathways are introduced, with special emphasis on the pathways elucidated by transgenic animal models. In this area, there are several clinically effective drugs to influence cardiac hypertrophy, including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, as well as a- and B-adrenergic receptor blockers. Mitogen activated protein kinases participate later in the hypertrophic cascade. There are ongoing investigations on the potential therapeutic use of lipid-soluble statins these are indirect inhibitors of Ras-farnesylation. Altered cellular Ca2+-homeostasis is fundamental with respect to cardiac muscle hypertrophy and heart failure. The third part of this article investigates the role of the calcium/calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase called calcineurin in these processes. Administration of cyclosporin A or tacrolimus (both are inhibitors of calcineurin) may not be recommended in most forms of cardiac hypertrophy, however, in certain settings they may prove to be valuable therapeutic agents. One of the most serious, not yet properly addressed problem of late stage heart failure is the development of ventricular arrhythmias caused by repolarization abnormalities. Certain mechanisms of this phenomenon are highlighted with a special note on Nat-Cat exchange inhibitors as one of future therapeutic agents of much promise. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 01, 2000

[Molecular mechanisms of the link between obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes]

CSEH Károly, SALAMON Ferenc, SZEKERES Orsolya, SPEER Gábor, TÓTH János , WINKLER Gábor

[Causal link between obesity and type 2 diabetes has already been generally accepted. Alterations in the regulation of central nervous control of food intake, in the adaptive termogenesis and in the endocrinological function of the adipose tissue have foremost importance. Concerning the control of food intake leptin, Agouti-related protein as well as the pro-opiomelanocortin system and its receptors may have pivotal role in developing insulin resistance. In altering the control of adaptive termogenesis leading to obesity and concomittant insulin resistance, the mutations of the Bz-adrenergic receptors and the uncoupling proteins are important factors. Key mediators found in adipose tissue regulating insulin sensitivity are the non-esterified fatty acids, components of the tumor necrosis factor system and leptin, with the peroxysome proliferator activating receptor being the main genetic regulator of these adiposity signal molecules, ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 01, 2000

[Practical questions of perinatal thyroidology]

ILYÉS István

[Characteristic features of maternal, fetal and neonatal thyroid functions are discussed. The role of maternal thyroid hormone transfer in fetal development is emphasised with the interpretation of the association between maternal and fetal thyroid functions. Thyroid disorders and dysfunctions during neonatal period are summarised and the influence of maternal thyroid disease to neonatal thyroid function is demonstrated. The role of iodine deficiency and importance of optimal iodine intake during pregnancy are also emphasised. Congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid dysfunctions of premature infants are shortly presented. The importance of prenatal care, screening for congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid function checks in premature infants are also pointed out. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 01, 2000

[A case of juvenile haemochromatosis presenting adrenocortical insufficinecy ]

VÁRKONYI Andrea, KOLLAI Géza, ROMCSIK László, MÜZES Györgyi, TULASSAY Zsolt, TORDAI Attila, ANDRIKOVICS Hajnalka, PETER Kaltwasser Joachim, SEIDL Christian

[Juvenile haemochromatosis is a rare autosomally inherited disorder of iron metabolism causing severe iron overload in young adults. The organs mostly affected are liver, spleen, pancreas, heart and the skin similarly to the genetically also determined adult form. CASE REPORT - Contrary to most juvenile haemochromatosis cases characterised by secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, this patient presented with adrenocortical insufficiency. Involvement of the heart was present on diagnosis while liver showed normal architecture without increased iron content. Genetic analysis revealed that the patient did not carry the C282Y mutation, while the H63D mutation was present in heterozygous form. With hormone supply and regular vena sections the patient is free of complaints. CONCLUSION – This case demonstrates that severe iron overload can occur early in adult life without the presence of HFE gene mutations suggesting a putative gene defect responsible for juvenile haemochromatosis. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 01, 2000

[ Recommendation for the pharmacological treatment of involutional osteoporosis]

LAKATOS Péter, HORVÁTH Csaba, MARTON István, PAP Károly, POÓR Gyula, MOOT Vezetősége

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2021

[Management of bone metabolism in epilepsy ]

UÇAN TOKUÇ Ezgi Firdevs , FATMA Genç, ABIDIN Erdal, YASEMIN Biçer Gömceli

[Many systemic problems arise due to the side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used in epilepsy patients. Among these adverse effects are low bone mineral density and increased fracture risk due to long-term AED use. Although various studies have supported this association with increased risk in recent years, the length of this process has not been precisely defined and there is no clear consensus on bone density scanning, intervals of screening, and the subject of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In this study, in accordance with the most current recommendations, our applications and data, including the detection of possible bone mineralization disorders, treatment methods, and recommendations to prevent bone mineralization disorders, were evaluated in epilepsy patients who were followed up at our outpatient clinic. It was aimed to draw attention to the significance of management of bone metabolism carried out with appropriate protocols. Epilepsy patients were followed up at the Antalya Training and Research Hospital Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Outpatient Clinic who were at high risk for osteoporosis (use of valproic acid [VPA] and enzyme-inducing drugs, using any AED for over 5 years, and postmenopausal women) and were evaluated using a screening protocol. According to this protocol, a total of 190 patients suspected of osteoporosis risk were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were excluded from the study due to secondary osteoporosis. Of the 186 patients who were included in the study, 97 (52.2%) were women and 89 (47.8%) were men. Prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) was 42%, in which osteoporosis was detected in 11.8% and osteopenia in 30.6% of the patients. Osteoporosis rate was higher at the young age group (18-45) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.018). There was no significant difference between male and female sexes according to osteoporosis and osteopenia rates. Patients receiving polytherapy had higher osteoporosis rate and lower BMD compared to patients receiving monotherapy. Comparison of separate drug groups according to osteoporosis rate revealed that osteoporosis rate was highest in patient groups using VPA+ carbamazepine (CBZ) (29.4%) and VPA polytherapy (19.4%). Total of osteopenia and osteoporosis, or low BMD, was highest in VPA polytherapy (VPA+ non-enzyme-inducing AED [NEID]) and CBZ polytherapy (CBZ+NEID) groups, with rates of 58.3% and 55.1%, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference between drug groups according to bone metabolism markers, vitamin D levels, and osteopenia-osteoporosis rates. Assuming bone health will be affected at an early age in epilepsy patients, providing lifestyle and diet recommendations, avoiding polytherapy including VPA and CBZ when possible, and evaluating bone metabolism at regular intervals are actions that should be applied in routine practice. ]