Lege Artis Medicinae

[Bone marrow transplantation in adults]

RÁK Kálmán, PETRÁNYI Győző

FEBRUARY 26, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(02)

["With careful donor selection and preventive immunosuppressive treatment, including ablative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy if necessary, many bone marrow recipients today have a good chance of being cured of a previously incurable disease or at least of a lasting improvement in their quality of life." The main indications for bone marrow transplantation (in adults), Techniques for bone marrow harvesting, Patient (recipient) selection considerations, Donor selection, Pre-transplantation considerations, Post-transplant complications, Results of allogeneic transplantation, Current efforts, Autologous transplantation, Main aspects of the clinical use of bone marrow transplantation according to the most accepted indications, Other indications for transplantation, Organizational issues in adult bone marrow transplantation, Main areas of activity and responsibilities of the national bone marrow transplantation network]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New methods of plastic surgery for breast reconstruction]


[The treatment and plastic surgical reconstruction of breast tumour patients raise contradictions and unsolved problems. The approach of breast tumour surgery has been changed recently. New evidence shows that in terms of survival, free from distant disease there is no significant difference between lumpectomy and radical mastectomy. Thus breast-conserving operations as a replacement for radical mastectomy have been spreading. The most characteristic features of these operation are: the horizontal incision, the conservation of the pectoral muscles and the whole or partial preservation of glandular tissues. The quality and quantity of available tissues for the breast reconstruction have changed as, the methods of plastic surgical operations has been adopted. New methods for breast reconstruction such as muscle and musculocutaneous flaps, free flaps, different breast implants, and skin expanders have become more and more preferred. For nipple and areola reconstruction local flaps, skin grafts, external prostheses and tattoo are widely used. Nowadays the most important point of view in there the construction of the breast are accurate symmetry, aesthetic breast form and harmony of the whole body. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Results in the sclerotherapy of varicocele]


[Testicular varicocele which is curable by surgical or transcatheteric methods is one of the most common causes of male infertility. In this study the success of the interventional radiological method was evaluated. Internal spermatic vein phlebographies were performed in the case of left sided varicocele. Before intervention the anamnesis, inspection, palpation, sonography, colour Doppler sonography and phlebography was evaluated and in a part of the cases spermiogramm too. Follow up examinations were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after the sclerotherapy and the 1.5-4.5 years then later. The internal spermatic vein was succesfully occluded in 2/3 of the patients in the distal third, in 1/3 in the middle or in the upper third. Complications occurred in 10 cases as intima lesions without any consequencies and in 4 patients as scrotal thromboph lebitis. At the follow up examinations very good regression was demonstrated. Persistence or recurrence occured in 5.7% of cases. The spermiogramm usually got back to normal or showed an improvement and we registered 8 pregnancies from 23 formerly infertile marriages. The interventional radiological method is simpler, cheaper, requires shorter time and inpatient period, decreases sick-allowance, and the success rate reaches the level of the surgical method. The joint evaluation of the real time and the colour Doppler ultrasound is a very sensitive method in the interpretation of the results of the treatment. In our opinion sclerotherapy with Varicocid is the method of choice in the treatment of the varicocele. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Mapping of EEG in neurological disorders]


[Mapping is a new way to convey the information of the mathematical analysis of the EEG in an immediately understandable form. In this article, the history of EEG mapping is surveyed. Sixteen channel EEG mapping system was programmed on an IBM-AT personal computer which constructs absolute and relative power spectra topograms on the scalp. Hemispheric asymmetry and long term changes of absolute and relative power estimates were calculated by statistical methods (Wilcoxon and Student t-test). In comparison traditional reading of the EEG the mapping has the following advantages: 1. it uses exact procedures instead of qualitative estimation; 2. in can detect minimal cortical damages; 3. it has the ability to store data for later comparison: the power ratios in selected frequency ranges proved to be a reliable indicator of post-ischemic restitution of EEG; 4. it can evaluate of event related reactions of bioelectric signals in higher resolution. EEG topography provides early information regarding the severity of ischemic lesions in the acute stage of stroke before to the CT scan can visualize the tissue hypodensity. In cases of permanent epileptic waves, the mapping visualizes the local power maxima of dominant frequency ranges and detects the post-ic talimpairment of cortical fields of epileptic foci. Probability significance mapping has reinstated the diagnostic value of EEG by the applica tion of the neuroimaging techniques.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Bidirectional Doppler investigation of the internal carotid artery]


[The blood-flow velocity in carodit arteries was measured with a bidirectional CW Kranz bühler 761 Doppler instrument. These investigations were supplemented with special compression tests. 60 investigations were performed to study the blood-flow in the supraorbital and supra trochlear arteries, while compressing the superficial temporal, the facial and the common carotid arteries. The results were compared with 30 regularly performed angiographies. Conclusions: the sensivity of this method is 80%, the specificity is 85%, its positive and negative predictive values are 76% and 87% respectively. Therefore this method is suggested for screening the internal carotid artery. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Ultrasound examination of the knee]


[The knee is frequently injured. In addition to the phisical examination imaging methods are very important in determining the diagnosis of the disorders. Ultrasound method is useful in revealing the injuries of the soft tissues of the knee. The authors examined 350 patients with an Acuson 128 ultrasound machine, using 5 and 7 MHz linear transducer in standard positions. They analized the pathological disorders of the knee joint. They consider the examination of network of the band important. Sonography has a significant role in the diagnosis of knee disorders. That can replace more expensive or invasive examination methods.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.

Clinical Neuroscience

A new method to determine the optimal orientation of Slim Modiolar cochlear implant electrode array insertion

HORVÁTH Bence, PERÉNYI Ádám, MOLNÁR Fiona Anna, CSANÁDY Miklós, KISS József Géza, ROVÓ László

Our goal was to determine the optimal orientation of insertion of the Slim Modiolar electrode and develop an easy-to-use method to aid implantation surgery. In some instances, the electrode arrays cannot be inserted in their full length. This can lead to buckling, interscalar dislocation or tip fold-over. In our opinion, one of the possible reasons of tip fold-over is unfavourable orientation of the electrode array. Our goal was to determine the optimal orientation of the Slim Modiolar electrode array relative to clear surgical landmarks and present our method in one specified case. For the measurement, we used the preoperative CT scan of one of our cochlear implant patients. These images were processed by an open source and free image visualization software: 3D Slicer. In the first step we marked the tip of the incus short process and then created the cochlear view. On this view we drew two straight lines: the first line represented the insertion guide of the cochlear implant and the second line was the orientation marker (winglet). We determined the angle enclosed by winglet and the line between the tip of the incus short process and the cross-section of previously created two lines. For the calculation we used a self-made python code. The result of our algorithm for the angle was 46.6055°. To validate this result, we segmented, from the CT scan, the auditory ossicles and the membranaceous labyrinth. From this segmentation we generated a 3D reconstruction. On the 3D view, we can see the position of the previous lines relative to the anatomical structures. After this we rotated the 3D model together with the lines so that the insertion guide forms a dot. In this view, the angle was measured with ImageJ and the result was 46.599°. We found that our method is easy, fast, and time-efficient. The surgery can be planned individually for each patient, based on their routine preoperative CT scan of the temporal bone, and the implantation procedure can be made safer. In the future we plan to use this method for all cochlear implantation surgeries, where the Slim Modiolar electrode is used.

Clinical Neuroscience

Effects of valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam on Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio


Aim - To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods - A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results - Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusions - It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.