[A Brief Compendium of Unusual Remedies Scatotherapy]
MAGYAR László András1
MAY 16, 2007
Lege Artis Medicinae - 2007;17(04-05)
MAGYAR László András1
MAY 16, 2007
Lege Artis Medicinae - 2007;17(04-05)
Lege Artis Medicinae
[INTRODUCTION - Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a systemic small vessel vasculitis characterized by vascular and/or mesangial IgA deposits, primarily affecting the vasculature of the skin, joints, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal findings of various severity occur in 50 to 85% of the cases. We report on a 70-year-old woman who developed ileocaecal invagination and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage as manifestations of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. CASE REPORT - The patient presented with two days history of palpable purpuric rash localized on the lower extremities. Based on the result of the skin biopsy, which showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis, IgA and C3 deposits, Henoch-Schönlein purpura was suspected. On the second night after admission colicky abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea developed. Radiological examination showed an ileocaecal invagination and since symptoms deteriorated caecum resection and ileo-ascendestomy was performed. On the third postoperative day the patient became oligo-anuric, which was attributed to her Henoch-Schönlein disease, and systemic steroid pulse therapy was given. One month after the admission the patient experienced haematochezia. Emergency upper endoscopy revealed petechiae, haemorrhagic erosions and mucosal oedema, primarily in the descending part of the duodenum. Since these lesions were also considered as presentations of Henoch-Schönlein disease, another bolus of parenteral steroid was administered. Upper endoscopy repeated 3 days later showed remarkable improvement of the gastric and intestinal lesions. CONCLUSION - Gastrointestinal symptoms are common manifestations of Henoch-Schönlein purpura, thus their recognition, in which endoscopy plays a crucial role, is of major importance. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy is an effective therapeutic option not only in the management of severe renal or joint symptoms, but also in the treatment of gastrointestinal manifestations.]
Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.
We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey between 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.
[Introduction - The purpose of our study was to find out whether the Hungarian adaptation of the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status), a brief neurocognitive screening test, is appropriate for the differentation of healthy and non-healthy subject groups, or for the detection of differences between the cognitive performance of patient groups. Patients and method - The test battery was administrated to 38 healthy subjects, 69 schizophrenic patients, and 18 patients suffering from dementia (10 probable Alzheimer-type and eight vascular dementia). Results - There was a significant decrease of performance in all patient groups compared to the healthy group. In the schizophrenic group, the test indicated a deterioration of functioning in all cognitive areas. The patient group with Alzheimer-type dementia performed only slightly better than the schizophrenic group, because the fall of performance was not significant only one of the cognitive areas (in the visuo-spatial tasks) when compared to the healthy group. There was no difference between the performance of patients with vascular dementia and that of healthy subjects in direct memory, verbal and visuo-spatial tasks. The test results indicated an even deterioration of cognitive areas in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. As for the vascular dementia group, the most vulnerable area proved to be that of attention, while their verbal functions were relatively spared. The deterioration in other cognitive functions shown by schizophrenic subjects was more moderate, but still significant. A comparison of the RBANS scores of the schizophrenic patients in our study and the result of an American study was also carried out. The global indeces showed no difference; only the pattern of the sub-scales was a little different. Conclusion - The Hungarian version of the RBANS seems appropriate for the differentiation of healthy and deteriorated cognitive performance in a Hungarian patient population.]
Introduction - Syncope is defined as a brief transient loss of consciousness due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Although the diagnosis of syncope is based on a thorough history and examination, electroencaphalography (EEG) is also an important investigational tool in the differential diagnosis in this group of patients. In this study we aimed to identify the diagnostic value of EEG in patients with syncope. Methods - We retrospectively examined EEG recordings of 288 patients with the diagnosis of syncope referred to the Cankiri State Hospital EEG laboratory, from January 2014 to January 2016. The EEG findings were classified into 6 groups as normal, epileptiform discharges (spike and sharp waves), generalized background slowing, focal slowing, hemispherical asymmetries, and low amplitude EEG tracing. The EEGs were separated according to gender and age. Results - Total of 288 patients were included in this study, 148 were females (51.4%) and 140 (48.6%) were males. Among all the EEG reports, 203 (70.5%) were normal, 8 of them (2.8%) showed generalized background slowing and 7 (2.4%) demonstrated focal slow waves. Epileptiform discharges occured among 13 patients (4.5%). Hemispherical asymmetries were detected in 10 patients (3.5%) and low amplitude EEG tracing in 47 patients (16.3%). There was no significant difference between age groups in EEG findings (p=0.3). Also no significant difference was detected in EEG results by gender (p=0.2). Discussion - Although the diagnosis of syncope, epilepsy and non-epileptic seizures is clinical diagnosis, EEG still remains additional method
Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice
The aim of this study is to adapt the BSCP (Brief Scales for Coping Profile) scale to Turkish and to investigate its psychometric properties among textile workers. Methods: This a psychometric study with cross-sectional design. After translation procedures, the BSCP was administered to workers. Content validity of the BSCP was investigated with the CVI index and reliability was investigated with Cronbach’s Alpha. The construct validity was investigated with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The psychometric properties of the original BSCP were supported by the Turkish version of the BSCP. According to the exploratory factor analysis, the BSCP had six subscales. The reliability of the BSCP subscales’ values were 0.692, 0.712, 0.661, 0.756, 0.786, and 0.777 respectively. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the BSCP showed acceptable reliability and validity which is the first adapted scale in Turkey for evaluating workers’ coping profiles. The scale will be a good option to provide basic data about workers’ coping profiles which may be used for prolonging stress management skills and health promotion programs by occupational health and psychiatric nurses, physicians, psychologist and safety experts.
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Clinical NeuroscienceRetinal morphological changes during the two years of follow-up in Parkinson’s disease