Hungarian Radiology

[dr. Erzsébet Schläffer]

LOMBAY Béla

MARCH 20, 2007

Hungarian Radiology - 2007;81(01-02)

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[Experiences about the breast diagnostic methods are accumulating year-to-year, rapidly. Therefore the current examination algorithm is changing continuously. New diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are entering into the daily practice. Some of them became obsolete, so far their application is becoming a faulty decision. Some other methods become obligatory steps in the diagnostics. These are the reasons why the up-to-date knowledge of the literature is mandatory. Systematic review of the most recent articles of the last two years (January 2005-December 2006) of breast radiological diagnostics and the actual place of the imaging and interventional methods are presented. The following topics are summarized: breast cancer screening with conventional and digital mammography, computer assisted diagnostics (CAD), high risk patients' screening, US, MRI, MSCT, PET/CT, diagnostic interventions, differential diagnostics, percutaneous tumour ablation, therapy-related questions in the diagnostic work up.]

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[Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem. The prevalence of symptoms related with constipation fluctuates from 3 to 20 per cent. Constipation occurs more frequently in the elderly people and in females and more frequent in case of inactivity and less fiber intake. Assesment of patients with severe constipation includes specialized investigations. Exclusion of primary organic causes has to be the first step, then metabolic, neurological and iatrogenic causes (such as medicament side effects, etc) have to be excluded. After these considerations special functional gastroenterological investigations are needed which contribute to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the cause of the constipation. Anorectal manometry, ballon expulsion test, defecography and colon transit studies allow us to distinguish between slow colon transit, colon inertia, different subtypes of outlet obstruction, and the constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The evaluation of these specific studies leads to the exact diagnosis and appropriate treatement for their problem can be given to the patients, which always has to be individually planed in all cases.]

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