Hungarian Radiology

[Dilemma of screening for lung cancer]

MONOSTORI Zsuzsanna

APRIL 20, 2002

Hungarian Radiology - 2002;76(02)

[Lung cancer still represents one of the greatest and unsolved health problem of the world. The lung cancer mortality rate is the highest among all cancer cases in both genders. While the world is focusing on both primary and secondary prevention, the position of mass screening for lung cancer is complex and controversial, yet. This raises many issues that can only solved by a multidisciplinary approach. This summary is intending to help the radiologists to make the right decision in our modern computerised world. Nowadays one of the most important question is if screening of the high-risk group with low-dose spiral CT is efficient and cost-effective.]

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Hungarian Radiology

[The incidence of Hirschsprung disease with associated congenital anomalies]

WEISENBACH János, KONDOR Ariella, KHEZRI Seddiq, VAJDA Péter

[INTRODUCTION - Several publisactions described the association of Hirschsprung disease with other congenital anomalies. Most studies were in relation with the neurological, ophthalmological and ear-nose-throat disorders. The authors did not find any publication in the Hungarian literature presented other anomalies in patients with Hirschsprung disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The data of 43 patients treated for Hirschsprung disease at the Department of Paediatrics of Pécs University was analysed. The most frequent associated anomalies e. g. Down syndrome, omphalocele, anorectal malformation, annular pancreas, torticollis, syndactylia, Meckel diverticulum, upper urinary tract disorder and undescendent testis were studied. The patients who had several congenital anomalies were evaluated separately as well as those having congenital inguinal hernia. The authors compared the number of congenital anomalies occurred in patients with Hirschsprung disease with the incidence of these congenital disorders occurred in non-Hirschsprung patients in the literature. RESULTS - Among 43 patients, 6 children had associated congenital anomalies. 3 patients had only one of the following disorders: undescendent testis, urinary tract duplication and Down syndrome. 3 patients suffered from multiplex congenital anomalies: 1. Down syndrome with annular pancreas and torticollis. 2. Omphalocele, anal atresia, vesicoureteric reflux and syndactylia. 3. Anus atresia, Meckel diverticulum and limb (radius) hypoplasia. In addition 3 patients had other anomalies such as unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernia and umbilical hernia. CONCLUSION - On the basis of our results we can state that the incidence of other associated congenital anomalies are higher in patients with Hirschsprung disease. Single organ developmental anomaly is rare, it usually occurs in association with multiorgan disorders. Most likely this is the explanation why patients with Hirschsprung disease have more associated anomalies.]

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[Dr. László Csípő]

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MAKÓ Ernő

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[Fals diagnosis of a pancreas tumor]

BAGI Róbert, SZABÓ Tünde, DIBUZ Margit, MONOKI Erzsébet

[INTRODUCTION - Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and the diagnosis is often not straitforward. CASE REPORT - A case of a 75-year-old male patient with a duodenal stromal tumor is presented. The differential diagnosis was difficult, since the mass mimicked a tumor of the pancreatic head. Authors briefly review of the characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. CONCLUSION - The role of diagnostic imaging in the diagnosis of stromal duodenal tumors is secondary. Correct diagnosis can be established using immunhistological and electromicroscopis studies, only.]

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[1 597 163 health assessments were performed on 65267 persons as a part of screening program. 132 964 participants were participated in our lifestyle advice program. The number of questionnaire responses for health statue were 3 717 480 during three years. This publication presents the results of metabolic disorders explored by screening. The metabolic syndrome was characterized by visceral obesity, abnormal glucose level and elevated blood pressure. Reasonable suspicion of metabolic syndrome was occured in 33-38% of subjects. Where the positive criteria was present, there were higher values of investigated parameters (waist, glucose, cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, uric acide level) compared with those of negative criteria.]

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[POSSIBILITES AND DIFFICULTIES OF COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING IN HUNGARY]

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[The frequency of colorectal cancer is increasing all over the world. It is the second most frequent oncological disease leading to death in both sexes in Hungary. The main part of colorectal cancer develope after the age of 50. In case of patients having higher risk we have to calculate with the earlier appearance of the tumour and detectable molecular genetic disorders. The development of colorectal cancer needs a long time. Before the appearance of the cancer, precancerous processes (adenomas, polyps) can be detected in the large intestine. The development of colorectal cancer can be prevented by the removal of the adenomas (polypectomy). There are many different and efficient methods to detect the precancerous and early disorders. For increasing the compliance to screening programs the common efforts of the society, the National Health Care Services and medical doctors are necessary. The education of the population and the medical services would also be helpful. The colorectal cancer screening programs are costeffective and supported by the different health services independently from the type of the insurance. Screening the patients having higher risk is one of most important task. In these cases the use of colonoscopy is the most frequent method for the screening and follow up as well.]

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[In recent years, huge research is going on in the fi eld of oncology and as a result, we can see a signifi cantly longer survival in this area of medicine. Lung cancer, which has been taken places in the back for decades, it has not become a curable disease, but begins to belong to the chronic diseases. As a result of brilliant surgical technics and stereotactic radiotherapy, or as a result of changes in drug treatment, 5-year survival is not uncommon in metastatic lung cancer patients, next to relatively long progression free survive. After the third-generation cytotoxic combinations the added growth inhibition (VEGF inhibitor) maintenance therapy or continuous pemetrexed cytotoxic chemotherapy were resulted in high survival benefi ts. The fi rst real breakthrough, long progression-free survival was achieved by targeted treatment, which proved to be effective with known driver mutations. The other great result, especially in squamous cell carcinoma, was the immunotherapy, the inhibition of immune checkpoints, which effi cacy was confi rmed in adenocarcinoma also. Several studies are going on with adjuvant or neoadjuvant immunotherapy, and combined use of immunotherapy (either in combination with radiotherapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy).]

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[Background and purpose - Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogenous syndrome considered as a prodromal state of dementia with clinical importance in the early detection of Alzheimer’s Disease. We are currently developing an MCI screening instrument, the Early Mental Test (EMT) suitable to the needs of primary care physicians. The present study describes the validation process of the 6.2 version of the test. Methods - Only subjects (n=132, female 95, male 37) over the age of 55 (mean age 69.2 years (SD=6.59)) scoring at least 20 points on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mean education 11.17 years (SD=3.86) were included in the study. The psychometric evaluation consisted of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the 6.2 version of EMT. The statistical analyses were carried out using the 17.00 version of SPSS statistical package. Results - The optimalised cut-off point was found to be 3.45 points with corresponding 69% sensitivity, 69% specificity and 69% accuracy measures. The Cronbach-α, that describes the internal consistence of the test was 0.667, which is higher as compared with the same category in the case of the ADASCog (0.446). A weak negative rank correlation was found between the total score of EMT 6.2 and the age of probands (rs=-0.25, p=0.003). Similarly, only a weak correlation was found between the education levels and the total score of EMT 6.2 (rs=0.31, p<0.001). Two of the subtests, the repeated delayed short-time memory and the letter fluency test with a motorical distraction task had significantly better power to separate MCI and control groups than the other subtests of the EMT. Conclusion - The 6.2 version of EMT is a fast and simple detector of MCI with a similar sensitivity-specificity profile to the MMSE, but this version of the test definitely needs further development.]