Hungarian Immunology

[Biologic therapies in the vasculitides]

SZÁNTÓ Antónia

APRIL 20, 2003

Hungarian Immunology - 2003;2(02)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Immunology

[Immunophenotyping of mature cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas with leukemic clinical manifestation - newer approaches]

PÁLÓCZI Katalin, NÉMETH Julianna, BÁNYAI Anikó, GOPCSA László

[Immunophenotyping is commonly used in evaluating malignancies of the lympho-hemopoietic system and its use in various disease states of mature lymphoid leukemias and related non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is reviewed here. The major goals of immunophenotyping in mature lymphoid neoplasias are the assignment of abnormal cells to the B or T/NK linkage, their maturational analysis, and the characterization of specific phenotypes which might be helpful for the subclassification of disease. There is not known, however, any lymphoma (leukemia) -specific antigen and the individual type of lymphoid leukemias and lymphomas does not follow the antigen expression profile of normal differentiation. Therefore, the approach to analysis of lymphoid neoplasias requires thoughtful utilization of laboratory testing, in order to meet both medical and economic goals of the laboratory and caregivers. The interpreter should expect to see a pattern of both positive and negative immunoreactivities that is appropriate to the final interpretation. The value and type of information provided by immunophenotyping in these malignancies varies and this paper outlines approaches for clinicians and laboratorians to follow when reviewing clinical data. The future for this technology is outstanding because it is the only one available today that can both rapidly and accurately measure multiple correlated cell properties. However, combined clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis and prognostication seems to be important including traditional and newer (molecular genetic, molecular biology) methodologies.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Immune complex clearance in systemic lupus erythematosus]


[Impaired clearance of immune complexes is regarded as a central factor in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Receptors for IgG (FcγRs) are expressed on phagocytes and madiate binding and endocytosis of IgG immune complexes. At first the binding of the ligand to the receptor of monocytes was determied with reaction kinetic method and microscopically. The results demonstrated that the binding of monomeric IgG is higher but that of immune complexes is lower to receptors of patient's monocytes. This discrepancy could be explained than the molecular heterogeneity of FcγRs on human phagocytes was revealed. The FcγRI binds the monomeric IgG, at the same time the FcγRII and III both bind and ingest the immune complex. After that the expressions of the different FcRs, as antigens, were investigated with monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometer. According to the authors' earlier results the expression of FcγRI on monocytes of patients was elevated but that of FcγRII and III were decreased parallely with the phagocytosis. The explanation for this discrepancy may be the structural and functional difference of the FcγR. The expressions of FcγRII and III decreased also on the granulocytes of patients. Impaired in vivo clearance of particle immune complex was measured in SLE patients correlated with the clinical activity of disease and the renal involvement. The data suggest that the alterations of FcγRI expression on phagocytes in SLE are much better a disease-related process and depend on acquired factors than on inherited one. In the transport of complement containing immune complex to macrophages the erythrocyte complement receptors (CR1) has important activity which are also decreased in SLE. The number of CR1 on erythrocytes was investigated by the binding of labelled ligand and monoclonal antibodies to the receptor in flow cytometer in paralell with the genetically determination of receptor expression. The data revealed a correlation between kidney involement of patient and CD1 deficiency, and their expression can be corrected with epoetin α treatment and with plasmapheresis. These data also suggest the role of acquired factors contributing to CR1 deficiency in SLE.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Molecular biology of 70 kD heat shock protein and its role in certain immunological processes]


[Heat-shock proteins, or stress proteins play important role in cellular survival owning to their protective function. Their highly conserved structure renders them ideal messengers of cellular stress response. One of the best known representative of these proteins is the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70), there is increasing amount of data about the intraand extracellular functions of this stress protein. In the present review the regulation of hsp70 gene expression, and hsp70 polimorfisms, the possible impact of polymorphisms to certain diseases, and the multilevel relationship between Hsp70 and the immun response are discussed. The authors review the role of Hsp70 in anti-tumor immunity, and the presence of anti-Hsp70 antibodies and their possible association with certain diseases. Here they present some of their recent observations: they detected the presence of anti-Hsp70 antibodies in all adult sera and found no correlation between these antibody levels and the presence of severe coronary heart disease. Recently we also showed, that human Hsp70 can activate the classical pathway of complement system in vitro, by direct binding of the first complement C1q.]

Hungarian Immunology

[The outcome of the renal involvement in primary Sjögren’s syndrome]


[OBJECTIVE - Kidney function re-evaluation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (P-SS) patients years after the first signs of renal involvement. PATIENTS - Of 75 primary SS patients followed up for various periods between 1990 and 1999, 11 had overt kidney involvement. The mean age of these 11 at the time of diagnosis of renal manifestations (first examination) was 39.6 years. In nine of the 11, the renal function was re-examined (second examination: NH4CL loading, determination of urinary concentrating ability, proteinuria and technetium99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance) on average 8.8 years later. RESULTS - At the first examination overt renal tubular acidosis (RTA) was diagnosed in 11 patients (proximal in one and distal in 10), accompanied by hyposthenuria in five, and proteinuria >0.5 g/24 h in four. Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) was diagnosed in all four biopsied patients with proteinuria, and cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis in one of them. Seven of the 11 were treated with moderate or low doses of glucocorticosteroids, and two with repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The acidification capacity of the kidneys and degree of proteinuria mostly improved significantly (p<0.001), but the degree of hyposthenuria did not change essentially between the examinations. CONCLUSIONS - The outcome of the kidney manifesztation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome is usually favourable, but end-stage renal failure can develop rarely.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Autoantibodies against α-fodrin in patients with Sjögrens’s syndrome]

SZÁNTÓ Antónia, CSÍPŐ István, ZEHER Margit

[INTRODUCTION, PATIENTS AND METHODS - In this study, the authors examined the presence of the IgA and IgG type autoantibodies against the 120 kDa α-fodrin in the sera of patients affected with primary and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, being treated in the Department of Clinical Immunology of the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, at the University of Debrecen. As a control population, the sera of healthy blood donors were used. RESULTS - Due to their findings, the presence of autoantibodies against the α-fodrin was significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome than in the control group. The presence of these autoantibodies occurred significantly more often in patients affected with secondary Sjögren’s syndrome associated to RA and SLE, than in these polysystemic autoimmune diseases without sicca-syndrome. Interestingly, they couldn’t find any connection between the presence of autoantibodies against α-fodrin and the occurrence of SS-A/Ro or SS-B/La autoantibodies. There was no correlation in primary and secondary Sjögren’s-syndrome between the extraglandular symptomes or the swelling of the salivary glands and the presence of the anti-α-fodrin autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS - The autoantibodies against α- fodrin might be important in the diagnosis of the juvenile Sjögren’s syndrome and other juvenile autoimmune diseases, in the early diagnose of Sjögren’s syndrome, especially in the lack of anti-SSA/ Ro and anti-SS-B/La.]

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Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients]

BOCZÁN Judit, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KÁLMÁN Bernadette, SZÉLL Márta, KARCAGI Veronika, ZÁDORI Dénes, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Lymphopenia and tuberculous lymphadenitis under immunomodulatory agents in a multiple sclerosis patient: Follow-up of a challenging case

KOSEAHMET Basoglu Fulya, OZTURK Musa , CELIK R. Gokcen Gozubatik

Interferon-beta (IFN-β) 1a and glatiramer acetate (GA) are first-line therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) with immunomodulatory effects. We present a patient who developed lymphopenia and tuberculous lymphadenitis under treatment with these agents. The female patient who at present 65 year old is followed at our MS outpatient clinics had received GA (20 mg/day, subcutaneous injection) and later IFN-β 1a (44 µg, thrice weekly, subcutaneous injection). During the course of her treatment, she developed mild to severe lymphopenia. A follow up thoracic spinal MRI (when lymphocyte count was 800/µl) showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the posterior mediastinum incidentally. Further investigation revealed tuberculous lymphadenitis. She received anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment for nine months and her condition resolved. Although immunomodulatory treatments are considered safe with regard to opportunistic infections, and lymphopenia under these treatments are generally accepted as mild and asymptomatic, our experience was different with this patient. Further studies on the management of patients with lymphopenia and assessment of the risk of TB under immunomodulatory agents are needed.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: A review of the 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria]


[The revolutionary progress of research in neuroimmu­nology has led to the introduction of disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis at the end of the last century. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis originally proposed the 2001 McDonald criteria to facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with the first objective neurological symptom(s) suggesting demyelinating event, when magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with clinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. New terms have been introduced to substitute clinical information by MRI: dissemination in space - indicating a multifocal central demyelinating process and dissemination in time - indicating the development of new CNS lesions over time. The criteria for diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis have continuously evolved, they were modified in 2005 and 2010 allowing for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of MS over time, and they provided the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The last recommended revisions relied entirely on available evidence, and not on expert opinion thereby reducing the risk of the misdiagnosis. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical, clinically isolated syndrome. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent 2017 revisions to the criteria of dissemination in space and time with the importance of the presence of CSF-specific oligoclonal bands; keeping fully in mind that there is no better explanation for symptoms than diagnosis of MS. In the future, validation of the 2017 McDonald criteria will be needed in diverse populations. Further investigations are required on the value of new MRI approaches, on optic nerve involvement, on evoked potential and optical coherence tomography, in order to assess their possible contribution to diagnostic criteria.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Expanded Disability Status Scale scoring in patients with multiple sclerosis]


[Gait disturbance is a major symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was first used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis for the assessment of disability, however it has become more and more widely used in clinical practice as well. Nowadays its use is essential in application of the new diagnostic criteria, the new clinical form classification and in monitoring the efficacy of therapies. EDSS is based on a standardised neurological examination, but focuses on those symptoms that are frequent in multiple sclerosis. Based on the examination it assesses seven functional systems: visual, brainstem, pyramidal, cerebellar, sensory, bowel-bladder and cerebral functions. EDSS scores can be determined based on the scores given in the functional systems and on testing the walking distance. In newer versions the “Ambulation score” has been added. This chapter clarifies the scores based on the maximal walking distance and the need for a walking aid to walk this distance. The Neurostatus/EDSS training method improves the reproducibility of the standardised neurological examination that forms the basis of the EDSS scoring. Of the tests assessing walking, the Timed-25 Foot Walk Test and the self-administered 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale are suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. An increase of more than 20% in the Timed-25 Foot Walk may be considered a significant change in gait. ]