Clinical Neuroscience

[Apparently sex-linked inheritance of Huntington's chorea ]


NOVEMBER 01, 1967

Clinical Neuroscience - 1967;20(11)

[The analysis of the family tree does not overturn the classic theory that the dominant inheritance of an autosomal gene is responsible for the transmission of Huntington's disease. Such a distribution of the sexes could be produced by the random dispersal of an autosomal dominant gene. Actio of modifier genes is also possible. A simple factor localised in the ivari chromosome, as in the case of haemophilia or colour blindness, is not indicated by the pedigree. However, the exclusivity of females and the relatively high number of males with no survival, makes it conceivable that the same gene that causes chorea in females has a lethal effect in males. It is likely that in this family, sex represents a genetic background that influences the physiologic circumstances of the action of the involved genes in profound ways. However, our observations are not sufficient to unambiguously clarify the inheritance pathway in this family. ]


  1. Budapesti Orvostudományi Egyetem Neurológiai Klinika



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Study of brain surface cooling in patients with epilepsy]


[In patients with epilepsy during surgical exploration, surface cooling of the brain was performed with cold physiological kitchen salt during ECOG registration. 1. A gradual decrease in the amplitude of ECOG activity with insignificant or mild changes in frequency was observed after local surface cooling. No progressive development of slow waves was observed. 2. One to two minutes of brain surface cooling can temporarily suspend the electrical activity of a highly active epileptic focus. 3. The cooling test provides the possibility to determine the primary or secondary nature of the abnormal electrical activity in the opposite homologous area 4. Very brief (10-20 sec) cooling causes a transient increase in epileptiform activity, exclusively at active points. 5. Short brain surface cooling during ECOG could be considered as a new functional electrographic test. It is a very simple and harmless way of amplifying epileptiform activity of uncertain value and thus facilitating localisation of areas of increased excitability. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on the role of psychic induction in the generation of compulsions ]


[In five case studies, the authors analyse the role of psychic induction in the generation of compulsions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Cerebral radiocirculography]


[The authors give a brief overview of the different methodologies for the study of the cerebral circulation with radioactive isotopes. They discuss in more detail Eichhorn's radiocirculography method, which, in addition to its simplicity, provides valuable data on the cerebral circulation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment of childhood organic cerebral lesions and cerebral dysfunction with Mydeton]

KISS Zoltán

[Mydetone has been tested - at an average daily dose of 0.3 gr (3 x 2 tbl) - in 120 children with organic cerebral damage and cerebral function disorders. 21 patients (18%) became symptom-free or improved to a great extent, 87 patients (72%) improved, 12 patients (10%) unchanged. Experience to date has shown that Mydetone is a useful aid in natal and postnatal forms of aperture. It has been shown to be effective in epileptics when used as an adjuvant. And in paroxysmal atypical seizures, it seems to have a particularly good effect. Very useful in memory and attention disorders, learning problems. It is also an effective and useful aid - for emotional and vegetative symptoms of neurotic reactions that are not too acute, as well as for headaches. In cases of enuresis nocturnes, no significant effect was observed. With regard to the mechanism of action of Mydetone, it also draws attention to temporal lobe function changes inextricably linked to the formatio reticularis, based on the effect observed in memory disorders and electrophysiological observations. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Congress of the German Neurosurgical Society 1967]


[Author reports on the 1967 Congress of the German Neurosurgical Society.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Validation of the Hungarian PHQ-15. A latent variable approach

STAUDER Adrienne, WITTHÖFT Michael, KÖTELES Ferenc

Somatic symptoms without a clear-cut organic or biomedical background, also called “medically unexplained” or “somatoform” symptoms, are frequent in primary and secondary health care. They are often accompanied by depression and/or anxiety, and cause functional impairment. The Patient Health Question­naire Somatic Symptom Scale (PHQ-15) was developed to measure somatic symptom distress based on the frequency and bothersomeness of non-specific somatic symptoms. The study aimed to (1) evaluate the Hungarian version of the PHQ-15 from a psychometric point of view; (2) replicate the bifactor structure and associations with negative affect described in the literature; and (3) provide the Hungarian clinical and scientific community with reference (normal) values split by sex and age groups. PHQ-15, depression (BDI-R), and subjective well-being (WHO-5) scores obtained from a large (n = 5020) and close to representative community sample (Hun­garostudy 2006) were subjected to correlation analysis and linear structural equation modeling. The PHQ-15 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.810; McDonald’s ω = 0.819) and moderate to strong correlation with the BDI-R (rs = .49, p < 0.001) and WHO-5 (rs = -.48, p < 0.001). Fit of the bifactor structure was excellent; in independent analyses, the general factor was strongly associated with depression (β = 0.656±0.017, p < 0.001) and well-being (β = -0.575±0.015, p < 0.001), whereas the symptom specific factors were only weakly or not related to these constructs. The PHQ-15 score was higher in females and showed a weak positive association with age. The Hungarian PHQ-15 is a psychometrically sound scale which is positively associated with depression and ne­gatively related to subjective well-being. The bifactor structure indicates the existence and meaningfulness of a gene­ral factor representing the affective-motivational component of somatic symptom distress. The Hungarian version of the PHQ-15 is a brief and usable tool for the pre-screening of somatization disorder (DSM-IV) or somatic symptom disorder (DSM-5). The reported reference values can be used in the future for both clinical and research purposes.

Clinical Neuroscience

Uric acid: The role in the pathophysiology and the prediction in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: A Turkish-based study

ARI Cagla Buse , TUR Kobak Esma , DOMAC Mayda Fusun , KENANGIL Ozgen Gulay

Oxidative stress has been associated as an essential contributor to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent developments in the field of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) pathophysiology have led to a renewed interest in this field. As an antioxidant, uric acid (UA) has arisen as a potential neuroprotectant. Higher concentrations of UA are linked to reducing the risk of the development of the disease and preventing its progression. However, the expositions are unsatisfactory because the outcomes of these reports have not been consistent. This study is set out to assess the association of whether lower UA concentrations increased the PD risk by investigating its relationship with patients’ demographic and clinical data, and to determine whether previous studies are compatible with the Turkish-sampled population. Furthermore, we aimed to determine UA’s probability of being an early-stage diagnostic marker. A total of 305 patients and 100 healthy controls were included. Serum UA levels of patients and controls were compared with clinical features. We classified the patients into three motor subtypes and determined the disease severity by modified Hoehn&Yahr Staging Scale (mH&Y) and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-TR) was assessed for cognition. There were not any significant differences of age and sex between patients and controls (p=0.030, p=0.132). The mean UA was 5.06±1.33 mg/dL in patients and 5.46±1.44 in controls, and a statistical significance was detected (p=0.022). The mean MMSE-TR were 24.83±4.35 in patients and 27.09±2.13 in controls, and statictical significance was revealed (p=0.001). The mean duration of the disease was 6.31±4.16 years, mean UPDRS scores were 59.74±22.33, and mH&Y scores were 2.29±0.91. In binary comparisons, patients with tremor-dominant motor subtype had lower UA concentrations than controls (p=0.014). ROC curve analysis revealed UA’s cut-off as ≤9.15, the specificity was 99.3, the sensitivity was 10.0, and the area under the curve was 0.576 (p<0.005). Regression analysis revealed age as an independent risk factor on UA values. Oxidative stress might be a factor in the development of PD, and UA may be a possible prospective protecting factor in the clinical course of the disease. However, it does not affect the severity. Our results support that lower uric acid concentrations are associated with PD; however, it is not a powerful indicator for predicting PD risk. As we reveal more about UA and its effect in further investigations, its significant role will become well-defined.

Clinical Neuroscience

Weekly patterns of suicide and the influence of alcohol consumption in an urban sample


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Clinical Neuroscience

Neurogenic stunned myocardium in acute ischemic stroke

ILERI Cigdem , DOGAN Zekeriya , BULUT Burcu , SUNBUL Murat , SAYAR Nurten , MIDI Ipek , OZBEN Beste

Neurogenic myocardial injury occurs as a result of dysregulation of autonomic nervous system. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of elevated troponin and dynamic ST segment/T wave changes and their relation with left ventricular (LV) systolic functions in acute ischemic stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-five patients (mean age: 65.1±15.2years, 76 male) presenting with acute ischemic stroke were consecutively included. 12-lead electrocardiogram was taken to assess dynamic ST segment/T wave changes, conventional transthoracic echocardiography to determine LV ejection fraction (LVEF). High-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) level>0.04ng/mL was accepted as elevated. Twenty-seven patients (21.6%) had elevated hs-cTnI and 60 patients (48%) had dynamic ST segment/T wave changes. The stroke patients with elevated hs-cTnI had significantly higher NT-proBNP values (2302±3450pg/mL vs 799±2075pg/mL p<0.001) and higher frequency of ST segment/T wave changes (85.2% vs 37.8% p<0.001), and lower LVEF (52.2±13.6% vs 61.0±8.5% p=0.002) compared to patients with normal troponin levels. The patients with ST segment/T wave changes had significantly higher frequencies of hyper­lipidemia (31.7% vs 15.4% p=0.031) and coronary artery disease (CAD) (43.3% vs 13.8% p<0.001), hs-cTnI (0.19±0.55ng/mL vs 0.02±0.01ng/mL p<0.001) and NT-proBNP levels (1430±2564pg/mL vs 842±2425pg/mL p=0.016), and lower LVEF (56.1±11.7% vs 61.9±8.3% p=0.009). Linear regression analysis revealed presence of CAD, but not ST segment/T wave changes as an independent predictor of hs-cTnI (p=0.034). LVEF was independently associated with hs-cTnI (p=0.003) and presence of CAD (p=0.009) when adjusted by age, sex and presence of ST segment/T wave changes. Troponin elevation and ST segment/T wave changes occurring in patients suffering acute ischemic stroke, especially in those with CAD, may be a sign of neurogenic stunned myocardium.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular prevention 2021 – Guidelines of European Society of Cardiology 2021. General principles]


[On 31 August 2021, the European Society of Cardiology published its guideline “Prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice”. This guideline provides a comprehensive review about risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, their assessment, potential modifiers, treatment and prevention of the cardiovascular disease itself at societal and individual levels respectively. The previous guideline issued 2016, had to be updated due to the recent significant advances in risk prediction of cardiovascular disease on atherosclerotic background and due to the beneficial effects of treatment, emerging new drugs and therapeutic targets. The risk assessment system has undergone a major overhaul and now predicts the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events together over a 10-year horizon and over a lifetime. In the new guideline, age plays a more important role in risk classification than before. The risk assessment and staged management of apparently healthy people or patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other specific diseases or conditions are detailed. The positive impact of influencing risk factors, the years of life gained can recently be presented in a lifetime perspective, which will help to make an individually tailored decision on the extent of interventions, taking into account also the patient'’s preferences.]