Lege Artis Medicinae

[TREATMENT APPROACHES OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B IN HUNGARY]

TORNAI István, NEMESÁNSZKY Elemér

NOVEMBER 19, 2006

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2006;16(11)

[Today, there are less patients with active chronic hepatitis B requiring treatment than patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis B is usually more severe, therefore, the disease has not lost importance. The most dangerous risks are the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The disease may present in various forms. Symptom-free carriers only need follow-up and hepatologic care. In the active stages with elevated liver enzymes and high level of viral nucleic acid (either HBeAg negative or positive), however, antiviral treatment is strongly indicated. There are two main forms of treatment. Alfa-interferon-based therapy, which is applied for a defined period of time, has a direct antiviral and immunomodulatory effect, but has several adverse effects. Long-term nucleoside analogue treatment represent the other treatment modality. These drugs are administered orally, have minimal side effects, but after some time resistant mutants may develop. Traditional interferon has recently been replaced by pegylated interferon alfa-2a with much better pharmacokinetic properties. Lamivudine has been in use for the longest time of the nucleoside analogues. Its efficacy is high, but after 3 to 4 years of treatment, resistant mutants appear in about 70% of cases. Of the most recent compounds, adefovir dipivoxil has recently become available in Hungary; it is primarily recommended in cases with lamivudine resistant mutants. There are promising new drugs in the stages of clinical trial; of these, entecavir has already been approved in the United States.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[In Memoriam Sándor Gerő (1904-1992)]

EMED Alexander

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Riddle]

GRÉTSY Zsombor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[I Still Have So Much to Do... A Discussion with Éva Csatár MD]

VARGA Brigitta

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Some Legal Aspects of Medical Practice and Viral Infections]

BÁLINT Tamás

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Rossini’s Mood Disorder]

KÖVES Péter

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Efficacy of peginterferon alfa-2a and -2b plus ribavirin in the routine treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C]

TUSNÁDI Anna, SZABÓ Anna

[INTRODUCTION - Combination of peginterferon plus ribavirin is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Two types of peginterferon are available. The aim of this retrospective study was to find out whether the choice of peginterferon influenced the patient’s chance of recovery. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Between 2004 and 2007, 142 patients with HCV genotype 1 hepatitis with or without cirrhosis (107 treatmentnaive, 35 previously treated) were treated with 180 ug/week peginterferon alfa-2a (Group A) or 1.5 ug/kg/week peginterferon alfa-2b (Group B) plus ribavirin. Examination and treatment of patients followed the rules of the national guideline. Patients were not randomized in any way. Group A consisted of 78 patients and Group B included 64 patients. Eight patients dropped out for various reasons (5 from Group A, 3 from Group B). There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline characteristics and the cumulative doses of the drugs between Group A and B, so the treatment results were comparable. RESULTS - Sustained virological response (undetectable HCV ribonucleic acid serum levels 24 weeks after the end of treatment) occurred in 42.5% of patients from Group A and 37.7% from Group B. When focusing on treatment-naive patients only, sustained virological response was found in 48.2% of patients in Group A and 46.7% in Group B. Result of the treatment was better if the patient was treatment-naive, if there was no cirrhosis, and if early virological response at 12 weeks was achieved. CONCLUSION - Patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin achieved sustained virological response at a higher rate than those with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, however, the difference was not statistically significant.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[UP-TO-DATE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B]

HORVÁTH Gábor

[Hepatitis B virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide, as well as in Hungary. The chronic infection is usually symptomless, its most dangerous risks are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The latter may occur without development of liver cirrhosis, so it means a potential complication for patients with inactive phase of infection, as well. Criteria of the indication of antiviral treatment have changed in the last years due to the flare of our knowledge about the natural history of the disease. In our days quantitative determination of hepatitis B viral nucleic acid titer is essential for diagnosis. Formerly, a HBsAg positive patient with normal liver enzymes had been regarded as inactive carrier, and antiviral treatment had not been advised. In our days, the phase of the infection and the necessity of the treatment can not be determined without measurement of nucleic acid titer. Liver biopsy and, if inflammation or fibrosis is present, antiviral treatment is indicated, if the nucleic acid titer is >20 000 IU/ml in HBeAg positive, and >2000 IU/ml in HBe negative cases, respectively. Interferon alpha is the gold standard of treatment for chronic B hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alpha-2a is used because of its better pharmacokinetic properties. Oral agents include nucleoside/ nucleotide analogues with rare and mild adverse effects, and they may be given to patients with decompensated liver disease. Their main disadvantages include the development of drug-resistance, and the very low ratio of HBsAg-anti-HBs seroconversion. Recent drugs like adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir have replaced lamivudin, which has been in use for the longest time, because they are more effective and resistance against them is less frequent.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]

ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]