Lege Artis Medicinae

[Tracheal stenosis subsequent to intubation]


OCTOBER 21, 2007

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2007;17(10)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae



[One of the most useful markers of non-small cell lung cancer is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression. Recently it was found that the EGFR gene may be amplified or mutated in non-small cell lung cancer rendering this gene product an ideal target for therapy. The introduction of molecularly targeted therapy into the clinical practice represents a milestone in the management of non-small cell lung cancer. However, our knowledge on the prognostic and predictive factors that will define the efficiency of anti-EGFR therapy is limited. In clinical practice, some common patient and disease features (e. g., smoking habit, gender, histological type) are still more dependable predictors than the fine molecular properties that may directly affect therapeutic response. The indication of anti-EGFR therapy in Hungary is based on the immunohistochemical detection of the EGFR protein, therefore, it is important that these tests are performed as reliably as possible. On the other hand, mutations in the EGFR gene may render the tumour resistant or, in contrary, especially sensitive to EGFR inhibitor therapy. The sequence of the diagnostic steps to define the genotype and phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer has a great importance in terms of cost-efficiency of the therapy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Arthrosis - An epidemic of the 21st century]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Understanding Naturopathy]


Lege Artis Medicinae



[Recombinant human erythropoietin has been used for more than 20 years for the treatment of renal anaemia, with epoetin-alfa and -beta representing the common traditional preparations. By the modification of the molecule’s carbohydrate moiety or structure a longer duration of erythropoietin receptor stimulation was achieved. The administration of these new molecules (darbepoetin, C.E.R.A.) once or twice a month is also sufficient to achieve serum haemoglobin target levels, making the treatment safer and more comfortable both for the patients and the personnel. These recently developed synthetic erythropoietin receptor stimulating molecules, along with recombinant human erythropoietin, are together called “Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents”. In haemodialysed patients the intravenous route is preferred, but the subcutaneous administration can substantially reduce dose requirements. In praedialysed, transplanted or peritoneally dialysed patients, erythropoiesis stimulating agents should preferably be given subcutaneously both for economic and practical reasons. There are ongoing clinical trials with erythropoiesis stimulating molecules that can be administered by inhalation or per os. Current evidence suggests that the serum haemoglobin level should preferably not exceed 12 g/dl with the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents. No cardiovascular protective effect of higher serum haemoglobin levels was demonstrated in two large clinical trials. Further well-designed studies are necessary to set evidence-based haemoglobin targets for erythropoiesis stimulating treatment. Arguments for a more widespread use of agents with extended duration include medical, financial and patient satisfaction reasons. The release of new erythropoiesis stimulating agents may further simplify the treatment of renal anaemia.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


CSERNI Gábor, VÁGÓ Tibor, TÖRÖK Norbert, GAÁL Zoltán, VELKEI Tamás, SERÉNYI Péter, GÖCZŐ Katalin, TUSA Magdolna, KOVÁCS Katalin, SZŰCS Miklós

[INTRODUCTION - Carcinomatous meningitis is a serious complication of advanced stage solid tumours, which may become more common with improved survival. CASE REPORTS - A 53-year-old woman with a recent history of breast cancer (pT2pN2M0) had been treated by mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She presented with weakness, diplopia and vertigo raising the possibility of vertebrobasilar ischaemia or an intracranial mass. In another patient, a 62-year-old man with hypertension, a stenotic common bile duct had been diagnosed when examined for abdominal complaints. When he presented with a high blood pressure value accompanied by intensive headache, vomiting and bilateral hearing loss, he was thought to have a hypertensive crisis. The rapidly progressive neurological symptoms and the history of breast cancer and findings suggesting pancreatic head tumour, respectively, led to the clinical diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis in both cases, despite any evidence on CT scans or a negative MR scan, though of limited value, in the first case. This diagnosis was confirmed by the laboratory and cytological findings of the cerebrospinal fluid, and also by the post mortem examination, since both patients died within a month after the onset of the symptoms. The primary tumour in the second patient proved to be a widely metastasizing diffuse type gastric cancer. CONCLUSION - Carcinomatous meningitis has a varying but characteristic presentation which generally makes it easy to diagnose, but it can sometimes present differential diagnostic problems. What we can learn from these two cases may help in recognizing this complication.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral haemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm


The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

Hungarian Radiology

[Forces exerted on the plaques during in vitro measurements by various carotid stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices]


[PURPOSE - During the endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis, one of the most important aspects is reducing of embolic complications. Degree of embolization may be influenced by the force exerted by stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices. We assessed the force emersion produced by various devices on vessel walls and plaques. MATERIAL AND METHOD - Six different commercially available devices were investigated. The force load on vessel wall was measured in a carotid model with vessel angulations of 25, 50 and 75 degree, respectively. The IDTE 2000 CE marked measurement system was used. A transparent, flexible PVC tube was used as a model of the carotid bifurcation, which was 6 mm in width, 1.5 mm wall thickness and 12 mm length. 75-85% stenosis were created in it. The measured data were evaluated and different conclusions were drawn. RESULTS - Forces exerted on vessel walls varied widely among different stent delivery systems. The magnitude of force exertion caused by stent delivery systems significantly exceeded that caused by protecting devices. Protecting devices showed only 30% increase in vessel load at angulation of 75 degrees compared to those at 25-50 degrees. Above 50 degrees of vessel angulation the forces exerted by stent delivery systems considerably increases. CONCLUSIONS - Our results showed that selection of the most proper stent can contribute to decrease in the load of vessel wall. Protecting devices exert significantly lower forces than stent delivery systems, therefore, it seems to be a better choice to advance a protecting device before introducing a stent delivery system. If the vessel angulation exceeds 50 degrees, endarterectomy should be considered, because the vessel wall load will increase radically in that case.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation - the most important risk factors for stroke in clinical practice ]


[Vascular stroke is a very frequent cause of morbidity and mortality, and in patients who suffered stroke subsequent long-term neurological deficit of greater or lesser extent is an important factor. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies confirmed that elevated systemic blood pressure is among the main risk factors of both ischemic and hemorrhagic vascular stroke, the effects of arterial hypertension being very complex including morphological and functional changes in vessels and vascular circulation. In our retrospective analysis of 218 patients hospitalized for stroke we found arterial hypertension in 91.2% of subjects and atrial fibrillation in 32.1% of subjects. 182 patients (83.5%) have been diagnosed with ischemic stroke and 36 patients (16.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. In the group of patients with atrial fibrillation, only 33 patients (47.1%) were treated by anticoagulants, what points out an inadequate indication of anticoagulant treatment when considering the stroke risk calculation for atrial fibrillation (CHA2DS2- VASc Score) and bleeding risk (HAS-BLED Calculator for Atrial Fibrillation). It is also noteworthy that in the group of patients with anticoagulant therapy who have developed ischemic stroke in spite of this treatment, we found that in 48.5% the treatment was underdosed and therefore ineffective. Our work points to the need to improve the effective management of arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation, the most common modifiable factors of vascular strokes.]