Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in the therapy of type 2 diabetes, in light of the new guidelines]


NOVEMBER 22, 2012

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2012;22(10-11)

[Type 2 diabetes has become a global public health problem, threatening the economies of all nations, as a consequence of rapid urbanisation, changing eating habits, sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower body mass index compared with Caucasians. The latest guidelines of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend lifestyle interventions as the first step for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The widely used metformin remains one of the first-line drugs for type 2 diabetes. If monotherapy alone does not achieve or maintain the target HbA1c level, addition of a second oral agent is recommended as a second step. The highly selective dipetidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and metformin are efficient and well tolerable. The complementary effects of sitagliptin and metformin lead to an efficient, safe and long-term improvement in glycaemic control.]



Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae



[The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has recently dramatically increased worldwide. While many factors contribute to the startling data, including changes in the diagnostic criteria of glucose intolerance, increase of life expectancy, manifestation of diabetes at younger ages, and increased detection of unrecognized diabetes due to more efficient screening, the genuine, steep rise in the incidence of diabetes is explained by the increasing prevalence of obesity. Among the late complications of both diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular diseases are particularly important. Insulin resistance due to visceral obesity plays a central role in the pathomechanism of type 2 diabetes. In the prevention of both type 2 diabetes and obesity, non-pharmacological intervention such as life style changes should be considered first. Supplementary pharmacological treatment should target all cardiovascular risk factors.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Antidiabetic therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes - The role of incretin mimetics]

GERŐ László

[Incretin mimetics represent a new group of antidiabetic drugs. They bind to their own receptor on the beta-cell membrane and increase insulin secretion in a glucosedependent manner. Thus, they rarely cause hypoglycaemia. Furthermore, they significantly reduce body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, they can be considered as an optimal group of antidiabetic drugs. The author reviews the clinical efficacy and safety of currently available incretin mimetics.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Switching from human basal insulin to once daily insulin detemir in type 2 diabetic patients treated by basal-bolus regimen - Results from the LEONCET2, an observational, prospective, multicenter study]


[Insulin analogues have been developed in order to overcome some drawbacks of human insulins. Switching from a human insulin-based basal- bolus regimen to once daily detemir could result in improved metabolism and increased safety of the therapy. We assessed the effects of switching from human NPH-insulin to once daily detemir insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a basal-bolus insulin regimen. We evaluated the data of 1,474 patients with diabetes (age: 59.1±9.8 years, body weight 89.6±8.6 kg, BMI 31.6±5.4 kg/m2) in an observational, prospective, 24-week, multicenter study. All patients were treated with a basal-bolus regimen consisting of human NPH as basal insulin and a human or analogue insulin as bolus insulin. After enrollment, patients received once daily detemir insulin instead of NPH-insulin, while treatment with bolus insulin was continued. Patients were examined at weeks 12 and 24. By week 24, the mean HbA1c value, irrespective of BMI-categories, decreased significantly (p<0.0001) from 8.63±1.01% by 0.79±0.63%. Fasting blood glucose level decreased from 8.86±1.78 mmol/l to 7.09±1.31 mmol/l; p<0.0001). The target level of HbA1c (<7.0%) was reached by 194 patients (13.1%). The patients’ body weight decreased significantly by week 12 (-0.69±2.00 kg; p<0.0001) and by week 24 (-1.28±2.80 kg; p<0.0001). The changes were more pronounced in higher than in lower BMI-categories (p for trend <0.0001). The mean daily doses of basal insulin were increased from 0.28 IU/kg to 0.33 IU/kg while those of bolus insulins were not changed. The rate of severe hypoglycaemic events decreased significantly (p=0.048) from 2.95 [daytime 1.02, nocturnal 1.93] to 0.06 [daytime 0.04, nocturnal 0.02] episodes/patient-year. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with basal-bolus regimen, switching from human basal insulin to once daily insulin detemir results in a significantly improved metabolism, as well as fewer hypoglycaemic events and decreased body weight. Nevertheless, the low rate of patients reaching the glycaemic target implicates that some factors other than an appropriate basal insulin substitution have a role in achieving an optimal metabolic control.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


URICH Elemér

[Insulin resistance is defined as a state of subnormal biological response to normal quantity of insulin. This phenomenon was first described by Hinsworth and Kerr in 1939, however it has come to the centre of interest only in the last two decades. It is the central pathogenetic factor of type 2 diabetes and the more complex clinical entity of metabolic syndrome, consequently also referred to as insulin resistance syndrome. In the background of insulin resistance alterations of the adipose tissue can be observed which clinically means obesity in most of the cases, however, this issue cannot be simplified to obesity only as increase in adipose tissue growth may be beneficial in certain cases. Current article discusses the explanation of this paradox and the pathophysiologic link between adipose tissue and insulin resistance. It also reviews the therapeutic aspects of insulin resistance emphasizing the role of thiazolidinedione type drugs having recently joined the therapeutic palette.]

Image challenge

What do you see on the feet of the diabetic patient?