Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of gut microbiota in mental health]

FRECSKA Ede, MÓRÉ Csaba

JANUARY 20, 2018

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2018;28(01-02)

[During the last decade, the Human Mic­robiom Project resulted in several important discoveries regarding the role of the microbiota communities - with the central role of the gut flora - in maintaining physiological homeostasis. The increasing knowledgebase carries important consequences for mental health. From a psychiatrist’s perspective, the current publication summarizes the most important results which may help to understand the etiopa-thology of neuropsychiatric illnesses, facilitate development of effective therapeutic interventions, and provide cues for disease prevention and a healthier lifestyle. ]

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[Classical methods in modern approach. Training for the recognition of emotions using bibliotherapy-techniques]

SZABÓ József, SIPOS Mária

[BACKGROUND - Nowadays it is an understood fact, that theory of mind has a great psychological significance. Deficits of theory of mind skills are observed in schizophrenia such as depression, dementia, autism and some personality disorders as well. Conceptions of theory of mind and emotion recognition ability have been coming in front at the expanse of the older empathy also in the present-day research in connection with helper connections and their effects. It is probably due to popular approach of cognitive neuroscience exact methods. METHODS - We intended to demonstrate, that the ability of emotion recognition can be developed, or partially restored, even in case of patients suffering from schizophrenia. We compiled an 8-seat training. Our method was a bibliotherapy training, each of chosen novels expressed one of basic emotions (by Ekman). After a common reading we projected validated portraits expressing also those emotions. Participants had to choose reflecting the emotional state of the characters photos. Then they shared stories from their own lives experiencing similar emotions. We measured the effectiveness of our method by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes measured (RMET) test. RESULTS - Comparing data before and after the training in t-test we detected significant difference (p=0.000608 <0.05). Verifying that the observed changes are not only the common effects of the other types of treatment, the same tests were performed on a similar in-patient treated control group. There was no significant difference between the RMET first time and two weeks later values of the control group (p=0.467). The rate of changes in the test and control group (RMET) was compared in a paired-sample t-test, and we also found a significant difference: p=0.000786 <0.005. CONCLUSIONS - The deficit of theory of mind in schizophrenia can be reduced, which indirectly can improve our patients' communication and adaptation skills, or worse, their deterioration can be reduced.]

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PUREBL György

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[Dementia is defined as a combination of symptoms or as a syndrome. In different types of dementia syndromes cognitive, behavioural and psychological symptoms can be distinguished according to clinical aspects. The prevalence of dementia increases continuously with age, causing significant challenges for the health care system of developed countries. Early diagnosis and early intervention by progression slowing therapy can be defined as goals in treating dementia. At the same time, the education and psy­chological support of the patients, their relatives and health care providers are also essential. A more accurate knowledge of the pathomechanisms behind the symptoms is ne­cessary in order to develop more effective therapies in the future. The authors review the most important types of mild cognitive impairment and dementia syndromes, their clinical and diagnostical criteria and therapeutic possibilities, focusing on early diagnosis and prevention.]

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