Lege Artis Medicinae

[The risk of ischemic heart disease in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease]


OCTOBER 28, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(10)

[A strong association is supported between ichemic cerebrovascular and heart diseases by several studies. Death is more commonly caused by myocardial infarction than by stroke itself in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, amaurosis fugax, transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Signs and symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases or asymptomatic atherosclerosis of the arteries of the neck are harbinger for both myocardial and cerebrovascular infarction. Patients suffering from ischemic cerebrovascular diseases should be routinely investigated, treated and cared for coronary artery disease in order to prolong survival. ]


  1. Semmelweis Orvostudományi Egyetem Neurológiai Klinika Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of acute obstetrical DIC]


[Modern management of acut obstetrical diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC) was evaluated. A large variety of obstetrical conditions are associated with acute DIC such as amniotic fluid embolism, abruptio placentae, intrauterine infection (septic abortion), dead fetus syndrome and prolonged shock of any aetiology. Typically, acute obstetrical DIC is associated with haemorrhage (mainly vaginal bleeding) and shock. The whole blood coagulation time, platelet count and fibrinogen level are the most clinically useful indicators in evaluating the patient with acute DIC. Management of acute DIC includes prompt treatment of precipitating factors (delivery of fetus in placental abruption, evacuation of the uterus in septic abort union plus administration of antibiotics, delivery of a dead fetus by induction of labor). Careful attention to fluid and blood cell replacement is needed to prevent and treat hemorrhagic shock. The coagulation failure is treated with fresh-frozen plazma or cryoprecipitate and platelets. In acute obstetrical DIC complicated by hemorrhage heparin has no use and will only cause the bleeding to worsen. Recently several clinical studies indicate that antithrombin III concentrates are efficacious in DIC.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Disseminated intravascular coagulation in the newborn]


[A review is given on disseminated intravascular coagulation in the newborn period. DIC is not a single disease entity, but a complication of several underlying diseases. The author summarizes the physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions which promote the development of this blood coagulation disorder in this age. Further on the clinical symptoms, the difficulties of laboratory analysis as well as of differential diagnosis are discussed. Finally a detailed description of the treatment of the neonatal DIC syndrome is given. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Results and perspective of gene therapy in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency]

SÓFI Gyula, MARÓDI László

[During the last decade research has been directed toward gene-replacement therapy of genetic disorders, including primary immunodeficiencies. Efficient methods for gene transfer were developed to correct the gene defect in adenosine desaminase deficiency, leukocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. Somatic gene therapy in a patient with ADA deficiency was performed two years ago. This paper summaries inicial clinical applications of gene transfer and gene therapy in primary immunodeficiency and the future prospects of gene therapy in cohort of patients. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Third International Study of Infarct Survival]


[There was no significant difference in 35-day mortality between the aspirin + heparin and aspirin-only groups. The incidence of re-infarction was slightly lower with aspirin plus heparin (2p <0.09). When patients also received heparin in addition to aspirin, transfusion was needed more often and non-cerebral haemorrhage was more frequent (2p < 0.01) Combining the results of ISIS-3 and GISSI-2, mortality was significantly reduced during the treatment period (p < 0.01). There was no appreciable difference in mortality or re-infarct incidence between the use of streptokinase or APSAC, but there were more allergic events in the APSAC group. There was no difference in 6-month survival between the two groups. There was no difference in the efficacy of streptokinase and tPA treatment at either 0-35 days or 6 months survival. Allergies were less frequent with tPA, but non-cerebral haemorrhage was more frequent. Treatment with tPA led to stroke significantly more often than streptokinase (2p < 0.01). Combining the data from the similar GISSI-2 trial and ISIS-3, no difference was observed between streptokinase and tPA in either mortality between 0-35 days or survival at 6 months. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The physiological and pathophysiological role of selenium]


[ Recent research and clinical observations have made the topic of the relationship between trace elements and free radical reactions, the unavoidable corollary of aerobic life, come to the fore. Based on the data of more recent literature, the author attempts to provide a concise review of the biological function of selenium, one of the trace elements, and emphasizes some aspects of its clinical importance. Selenium, being an essential component of selenium dependent glutathi one peroxidase plays a central protective role in the antioxidative processes of the cells and any damage to this function may entail several pathological consequences. Results of animal experiments and observations on human subjects refer to the role of selenium deficiency in the development and outcome of a certain type of cardiomyopathy but its relationship to atherosclerotic cardiovasular disease, im munological disturbances, inflammatory disorders and anticarcinogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. Selenium should be taken into account when treating patients confined to chronic total parenteral nutrition and its possible antineoplastic effect might be benefical in certain conditions. Although the clinical application of selenium in well-establis hed deficiency states is justified, and as a prophylactic measure or even as part of an antitumour strategy appears to be promising, wanton administration of this important trace element can be hazardous.]

All articles in the issue

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Lipid lowering therapy during COVID-19 pandemic]

MÁRK László

[The COVID-19 pandemic posed significant challenges to all healthcare systems of the world as created a new situations above the large number of people infected, solutions of which were lacking any previous patterns. Former experiences were specifically needed among physicians who practised usually with therapies supported by evidence based clinical experiences thus they were working along the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine. The new observations and recommendations for treating infected patients increased gradually, however they were not always well-founded by the general urgency. In this situation, physicians faced often problems of the patient’s former medications since they had to focus on the therapy of the prevalent life-threatening condition. In such cases, therapy as lipid lowering, which is inherently inimically and lightly taken, may be omitted even more often. Basic drugs of lipid lowering are statins. They are used to reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but they have also been described as having beneficial effect on the new viral infection. In this effect, the statins beyond the well-known anti-inflammatory impact and increasing the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 further mechanisms can take part as well. These may include among others the promoted breakdown of lipid rafts, which directly inhibits the entry of coronavirus into the cell through the S protein by decreasing the level of cholesterol required for this proceeding. In a group of more than 1200 statin treated and SARS-COV-2 infected patients the overall mortality rate by the 28th day was 48% lower than among the non-statin-users. According to a meta-analysis of nearly nine thousand COVID-19-infected statin users, they had 30% lower mortality rate or serious complications. Up to date observational studies suggest that statin therapy and the administration of other lipid lowering drugs should be continued or initiated according to the guidelines also during the COVID-19 infection.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[COVID-19 and Parkinson’s disease]

TÓTH Adrián, TAKÁTS Annamária

[Parkinson’s disease is the elderly people’s condition which increases the risk of infections in the upper airways in its ad­vanced stages. Specific diseases (as hypertension, diabetes mellitus), older age and the male sex are significantly worsening the course of COVID-19. It would be challenging to examine parallel these diseases, since they are raising two important ques­tions. First, if Parkinson’s disease be a risk factor of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Se­condly, how the COVID-19 pandemic can influence the Parkinson’s disease patients. The authors are seeking answers to these questions based on the published results in the topic concerned.]

Clinical Neuroscience

The evaluation of the relationship between risk factors and prognosis in intracerebral hemorrhage patients

SONGUL Senadim, MURAT Cabalar, VILDAN Yayla, ANIL Bulut

Objective - Patients were assessed in terms of risk factors, hematoma size and localization, the effects of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on mortality and morbidity, and post-stroke depression. Materials and methods - The present study evaluated the demographic data, risk factors, and neurological examinations of 216 ICH patients. The diagnosis, volume, localization, and ventricular extension of the hematomas were determined using computed tomography scans. The mortality rate through the first 30 days was evaluated using ICH score and ICH grading scale. The Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to determine the dependency status and functional recovery of each patient, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to assess the psychosocial status of each patient. Results - The mean age of the patients was 65.3±14.5 years. The most common locations of the ICH lesions were as follows: lobar (28.3%), thalamus (26.4%), basal ganglia (24.0%), cerebellum (13.9%), and brainstem (7.4%). The average hematoma volume was 15.8±23.8 cm3; a ventricular extension of the hemorrhage developed in 34.4% of the patients, a midline shift in 28.7%, and perihematomal edema, as the most frequently occurring complication, in 27.8%. Over the 6-month follow-up period, 57.9% of patients showed a poor prognosis (mRS: ≥3), while 42.1% showed a good prognosis (mRS: <3). The mortality rate over the first 30 days was significantly higher in patients with a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, a large hematoma volume, and ventricular extension of the hemorrhage (p=0.0001). In the poor prognosis group, the presence of moderate depression (39.13%) was significantly higher than in the good prognosis group (p=0.0001). Conclusion - Determination and evaluation of the factors that could influence the prognosis and mortality of patients with ICH is crucial for the achievement of more effective patient management and improved quality of life.

Clinical Neuroscience


GULÁCSI László, MÁJER István, KÁRPÁTI Krisztián, BRODSZKY Valentin, BONCZ Imre, NAGY Attila, BERECZKI Dániel

[The aim of our research was to assess the incidence and the 12- and 24-month mortality of hospitalized stroke in Hungary. We analyzed the rate of mortality after stroke and compared it to the standard mortality rate of the population. To assess the incidence we extracted the data of “new” stroke patients (ICD- 10 diagnoses: I60-64) hospitalized in May 2003 from the database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration. We regarded those as “new” patients who had not been treated with these primary or secondary diagnoses in the previous 24 months. Data were collected by sex and age (age groups: 25-44, 45-64, 65 and over). We analyzed the patients' survival on the basis of their April 2004 and April 2005 data. The incidence of the “new” hospitalized stroke patients was higher in men than in women; the incidence in the age group of 65 and over was 2112/100.000 in males and 1582/100.000 in females, the corresponding values in the 45-64 age group were 623 vs. 366 per 100.000, respectively. In 2003 more than 42 thousand “new” stroke patients were hospitalized in Hungary of whom over 10 thousand died in the first year, followed by a further 2 thousand in the second year. Women’s survival is more favourable than men's: in the first year it is 71.47% vs. 69.24% (65+ group), and 88.18% vs. 83.16% (45-64 group); in the second year the corresponding values are 66.95% vs. 61.62% (65+), and 85.45% vs. 80.90% (45-64), respectively. The risk of death in the first year after stroke, compared to the standard population, is 5.17- fold in women and 4.70-fold in men in the total sample, and 10-15-fold in the 45-64 group. There are large differences by gender, particularly in men of the working age groups (25-44, 45-64), whose mortality is twice as high as that of women of the same age.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Platelet aggregation inhibitors in the prevention of coronary coronary artery disease. „Handle with care!"]

NAGY Viktor

[Platelets play pivotal role in the pathophysiology of unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction and in complications following percutaneous coronary intervention. Three classes of platelet-inhibiting drugs, aspirin, thienopyridines and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are now commonly used for the prevention and treatment of the disorders of coronary artery thrombosis. For the last several decades, aspirin has been the sole option for antiplatelet therapy in the treatment and prevention of the manifestations of cardiovascular disease. However, a wider selection of antiplatelet agents, including the thienopyridines (ticlopidine and clopidogrel) and the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists are available today. This review summarizes these drugs and scientific data that have led to their use in primary and secundary prevention, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and percutaneous coronary intervention.]