Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Adventures of Haydn’s Skull]

GERLINGER Imre

JANUARY 27, 2009

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2009;19(01)

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New guiding principles of the anti-platelet therapy in stroke-prevention]

SZAPÁRY László

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New possibilities in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma]

DANK Magdolna

[The prognosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been poor until recently. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, with a poor liver function, thus therapeutic possibilities are limited. In high-risk patients, active surveillance and HCC screening is essential for early diagnosis. Experience with systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing with low response rates and high rates of adverse effects. Recently, novel treatment options have emerged, including the use of specific targeted agents, blockers of signaling pathways involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Sorafenib, an oral multikinase- inhibitor is the first systemic agent to demonstrate survival benefit in advanced hepatocellular cancer. Several new, promising therapeutic options are being tested in clinical trials. The present review gives an overview of evolving diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[“Lump in one’s throat” - Diagnostic and therapeutic failures]

GERLINGER Imre

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiological data in amyloidosis]

ESETLEÍRÁS képekben

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cutaneous metastasis of the signet-ring cell tumour of the stomach]

VAJDA Adrienn, TAMÁS Róbert, LÉVAY Bernadett

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to a jugular foramen schwannoma

ÖZTOP-CAKMAK Özgür, VANLI-YAVUZ Ebru, AYGÜN Serhat, BASTAN Birgül, EGEMEN Emrah, SOLAROGLU Ihsan, GURSOY-OZDEMIR Yesemin

Introduction – Although the involvement of the hypoglossal nerve together with other cranial nerves is common in several pathological conditions of the brain, particularly the brainstem, isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare condition and a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation – The presented patient arrived to the hospital with a history of slurred speech and an uncomfortable sensation on his tongue. Neurological examination showed left-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with fasciculations and deviation towards the left side during protrusion. Based on the clinical and MRI findings, a diagnosis of hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made. Discussion – Hypoglossal nerve palsy may arise from multiple causes such as trauma, infections, neoplasms, and endocrine, autoimmune and vascular pathologies. In our case, the isolated involvement of the hypoglossal nerve was at the skull base segment, where the damage to the hypoglossal nerve may occur mostly due to metastasis, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, nerve sheath tumors and glomus tumors. Conclusion – Because of the complexity of the region’s anatomy, the patient diagnosed with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was referred for gamma knife radiosurgery.

Hungarian Immunology

[Ocular myositis]

KISS Emese, FACSKÓ Andrea, DÉVÉNYI Katalin, DANKÓ Katalin, ZEHER Margit

[INTRODUCTION - Dermato-/polymyositis is an autoimmune disorder, which belongs to the idiopathic inflammatory myopaties. It involves skeletal muscles in form of weakness and inflammatory infiltrates. Characteristic skin lesions are present in dermatomyositis. Other organs may also be affected mainly in the presence of myositis specific autoantibodies. The inflammation usually involves the proximal muscles of extremities. CASE REPORT - In the present work we report the case of a 52-year-old woman. In the previous history the removal of rectal adenocarcinoma was remarkable in 1994. After that she received chemotherapy. She complied for severe headache and pain in the right eye in 2000 October, therefore a skull CT was performed, indicating thickening of rectus medalis muscle within orbital cavity. There was an enhancement of contrast material in the muscle. Glaucoma was excluded. Neurologist suspected the presence of myositis and indicated 0.5 mg/kg corticosteroid therapy. Soon after the left eye became painful, but due to the corticosteroid treatment both eyes became painless. A control orbital CT was completely negative in 2000 November. Immunology consultancy revealed a mild proximal muscle atrophy in both lower extremities, but CPK and LDH enzyme levels were normal, EMG was characteristic for mild chronic nerve lesion. The biopsy, taken from the involved proximal muscle of lower extremity, did not show inflammatory infiltration. Complete screening for cancer was negative. Thyroid gland disease could be excluded. Immune laboratory data were negative, autoantibodies, including anti-Jo1, could not be detected. Based on the results a rare disease, ocular myositis was diagnosed. Considering the clinical improvement, the withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy was offered. Stringent immunology and oncology follow-up is required. CONCLUSION - In relation to our case report, we discuss clinical symptoms of orbital myositis, diagnostic procedures to identify the disease and also differential diagnostic considerations.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Computed tomographic examination of cranial lesions, a paleoradiological approach]

ZÁDORI Péter, BAJZIK Gábor, BÍRÓ Gergely, LELOVICS Zsuzsanna, BALASSA Tímea, BERNERT Zsolt, ÉVINGER Sándor, HAJDU Tamás, MARCSIK Antónia, MOLNÁR Erika, ŐSZ Brigitta, PÁLFI György, WOLFF Katalin, REPA Imre

[Background and purpose - Introducing the multidisciplinary paleoradiology research at the Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology of the Kaposvár University, highlighting the cases with potential central nervous system involvement - from the scanning methods to the 3D printing - in order to draw attention to the historical background and clinical aspects of certain pathological conditions. Methods - The authors developed the examination protocols for three different CT scanners. Among the examined archaeological remains cranial lesions were identified in 26 cases, from which 4 cases with potential central nervous system involvement are demonstrated. The scanning parameters and the advantages of secondary image reconstructions (multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, three-dimensional volume rendering technique) are presented with the cases. Results - The authors demonstrate a case with destructive skull lesions due to syphilis from the 15th century AD, a condition rarely seen or even unknown nowadays in the modern world. With the CT images of the skull base fracture from the Iron Age, signs of healing could be verified. Using the CT images a non-invasive approach is presented in the case of the craniofacial osteosarcoma in order to visualize the local status and the direct intracranial propagation. Advantages of the 3D VRT reconstructions are shown in the case of unilateral coronal suture synostosis. Conclusion - Paleoradiological CT examinations serve as a non-invasive, non-destructive tool for studying archaeological remains and artifacts. The special applications provided by the imaging modality contribute to the conventional paleopathological investigations. Keywords: paleoradiology, computed tomography, 3D reconstruction, skull lesions, paleopathology]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Endoscopic Surgery of the Paranasal Sinuses and Anterior Skull Base]

FALUDI Gábor

Clinical Neuroscience

[Biportal neuroendoscopy of the prepontine cisterns]

REISCH Róbert, FRIES Georg, PATONAY Lajos, PERNECZKY Axel

[Introduction - While bi- or multiportal approaches have been adopted in different fields of surgery including abdominal and spine surgery, the uniportal access into the skull is a traditional principle in neurosurgery. In this preclinical cadaver study the authors developed combinations of biportal endoneurosurgical dissections in the prepontine subarachnoid space to test the safety of this technique. Methods - In 34 fresh post-mortem adult human cadavers and 14 formaldehyde-fixed adult human head specimen a total of 48 biportal endoscopical dissections were carried out. 0°, 30°, and 70° lens scopes with a diameter of 1.7 and 4.2 mm and trochars with a diameter of 5.0 to 6.5 mm were used. Results - Six different endoscopic routes to the prepontine region and a total of 10 different combinations of this approaches could be described. Useful and safe biportal combinations were: 1. supraorbital on both sides, 2. supraorbital combined with ipsilateral anterior subtemporal, 3. supraorbital combined with contralateral anterior subtemporal, 4. supraorbital combined with ipsilateral posterior subtemporal, 5. supraorbital combined with ipsilateral frontal interhemispheric, 6. supraorbital combined with contralateral frontal interhemispheric, 7. anterior subtemporal combined with ipsilateral frontal interhemispheric, 8. anterior subtemporal combined with contralateral frontal interhemispheric. Conclusion - The biportal endomicrosurgical strategy offered effective and safe dissections within the prepontine subarachnoid space.]