Lege Artis Medicinae

[Shoes from the shoeshop - Drug store liberalization]

BÁLINT Géza

JANUARY 20, 2007

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2007;17(01)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Zonisamide: one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy ]

JANSZKY József, HORVÁTH Réka, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs without history of unprovoked epileptic seizures are not recommended for epilepsy prophylaxis. Conversely, if the patient suffered the first unprovoked seizure, then the presence of epileptiform discharges on the EEG, focal neurological signs, and the presence of epileptogenic lesion on the MRI are risk factors for a second seizure (such as for the development of epilepsy). Without these risk factors, the chance of a second seizure is about 25-30%, while the presence of these risk factors (for example signs of previous stroke, neurotrauma, or encephalitis on the MRI) can predict >70% seizure recurrence. Thus the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) re-defined the term ’epilepsy’ which can be diagnosed even after the first seizure, if the risk of seizure recurrence is high. According to this definition, we can start antiepileptic drug therapy after a single unprovoked seizure. There are four antiepileptic drugs which has the highest evidence (level „A”) as first-line initial monotherapy for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy. These are: carbamazepine, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide (ZNS). The present review focuses on the ZNS. Beacuse ZNS can be administrated once a day, it is an optimal drug for maintaining patient’s compliance and for those patients who have a high risk for developing a non-compliance (for example teenagers and young adults). Due to the low interaction potential, ZNS treatment is safe and effective in treating epilepsy of elderly people. ZNS is an ideal drug in epilepsy accompanied by obesity, because ZNS has a weight loss effect, especially in obese patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Effects of valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam on Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio

YASAR Altun, ERDOGAN Yasar

Aim - To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods - A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results - Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusions - It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.

Clinical Neuroscience

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BARAN Brigitta, FARKAS Márta, RAJNA Péter

[There are a great number of psychopathological symptoms which manifest themselves in 70-75% of epileptic patients but most of them remain unrecognised and untreated. These symptoms may affect the patients’ quality of life more negatively than the epileptic seizures themselves. Anxiety is one of the most frequently occurring interictal psychopathological symptom. A number of specialists agree that chronic epilepsy causes the amplification of endogenic seizure suppressing mechanisms which hinder the epileptic seizures and are responsible for the development of interictal psychopathological symptoms. However the physiological effects of the interictal psychopathological conditions (e.g. anxiety) have epileptogenic effect as well. There is a high chance that the conditions of epilepsy and anxiety will mutually create a destructive vicious circle and it will be illustrated by our two case reports. In our experience, before modifying the pharmacotherapy of a patient suffering from chronic epilepsy with increased frequency of seizures, the anxiety level should be defined; and if it is high it should be treated first. From our perspective, the so-called ”rational bitherapy” is very effective when a high potential antiepileptic drug is combined with an anxiety reducing method. The latter can be drug related or consists only of psychotherapy. We need more controlled clinical research to prove that inside epilepsy there are risk groups as well as conditions of high risk when the connection between anxiety and epilepsy is more than evident. The described cases seem to indicate that the existence of periictal anxiety can be a risk factor in developing later interictal anxiety.]

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HERCZEG Béla

[Lercanidipine is a third generation DHP type calcium antagonist. It’s antihypertensive efficacy is proven using in monotherapy or combined treatment as well. The main advantage compared with the first and second generation DHP calcium antagonists is that fewer side effects, especially the much less common ankle oedema. Renal protective effect has proven by experimental and clinical studies, but in the future more prospective randomized studies should be supported this benefit. The drug is very useful for diabetes, obesity associated with hypertension due to the metabolic „neutrality”. The key of successful antihypertensive is the high level persistence. From this point of view the lercanidipine is a very useful factor during the treatment.]

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[OPTIMIZATION OF PAIN THERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOKINETICS - INNOVATIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS]

ANTAL István, KLEBOVICH Imre

[Medicinal preparations with durable analgetic effect are essential for therapy of the chronic pain. Controlling drug release allows the influence of fate of drug in the body as well as prolongation of duration of action. Development of innovative dosage forms as drug delivery systems offers increased efficacy and tolerability to improve patient's quality of life. Beside maintaining continuous therapeutical effect, extended drug release allows the spacing of dosing frequency. In addition, the more advantageous dosage regimen may improve the patient compliance during drug therapy. The review focuses on the aspects required to design drug carrier systems with original pharmacokinetic profile based on special pharmaceutical technological methods in order to optimize drug therapy for pain management.]