Lege Artis Medicinae

[Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes]

POZSÁR Hajnalka1, POZSÁR Csaba2

DECEMBER 17, 2021

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2021;31(12)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.31.048

Journal Article

[Self-monitoring of blood sugar levels is an essential element in the treatment of diabetes, it provides an insight to the success of treatment and self-management, the development of metabolic processes, and ensures the early recognition and treatment of significant blood sugar fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the habits of self-monitoring of sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, and among them the frequency, recognition and treatment of hypo- and hyperglycemia. The research was conducted as a cross-sectional study in 2018 in the Health Centre in Subotica/Serbia. The sample included 107 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected through interviews with patients using a customized questionnaire, during the regular control examinations. The patients’ level of blood sugar in the capillary blood was measured by glucometer. The statistical package IBM-SPSS 20.0 and descriptive analytic methods were used for data analysis. The mean age of the sample was 63.7 ± 7.7 years. Two-thirds of them performed opportunistic self-monitoring mostly before breakfast. A large number of patients never recognized variations of blood glucose (in 65% hyperglycemia and in 51% hypoglycemia). However, a month before 81% of patients had hyper- and 31% hypoglycemic episodes respectively. 12% of patients did not take any action in such cases. It is recommended to emphasize again and again the importance and way of self-monitoring at each follow-up examination. The shortcomings identified in the study provide guidelines what to focus on when caring for diabetic patients.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Szabadkai Szakirányú Főiskola, Biomedicina tanszék
  2. Petőfi Sándor Általános Iskola, Kúla

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Europe’s highest COVID-19 mortality experienced behind the former iron curtain]

RIHMER Zoltán

[While 11 out of the 15 first European countries with highest COVID-19 mortality rates are Post-Socialist countries (73%), and only 9 out of the 31 countries on place 16-46 (29%) are Post-Socialist. All of the top 17 European countries with the highest cumulative excess-mortality since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic era, are Post-Socialist countries (100%) as well as 19 out of the top 20 (95%). The dividing line between high and low COVID-19 mortality of European countries follows exactly the path of the former Iron Curtain. In addition, out of the 43 data reporting European countries, all the 18 with the lowest vaccination rate (100%) are Post-Socialist. The main cause of these differences in European COVID-19 mortality may be the traditionally disadvantageous physical and mental condition of the population of Post-Socialist countries, but this problem needs further, more intense investigations.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[100 years of insulin]

WINKLER Gábor

[Insulin is 100 years old. Concerning this anniversary, this study reviews the main events before and after the insulin era, the wider range of insulin products and the chronology of main clinical innovations related to the insulin administration. It also presents the history of related devices as delivery pens, insulin pumps and automated treatment systems. It points out that, al­though insulin dosing is an external replacement for missing or insufficient endogenous hormone production as related to the actual demand, it is to this date the general treatment available for all types and stages of this condition.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular prevention 2021 – Guidelines of European Society of Cardiology 2021. Cardiovascular prevention at individual level]

VÁLYI Péter, KÉKES Ede

[In August 2021, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published its practical guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. In Part 1 of our publication, we discussed cardiovascular risk factors, risk assessment, cardiovascular risk assessment in presumably healthy individuals of different ages, people with proven atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, people with diabetes mellitus, and factors influencing risk. In Part 2, conditions that influence cardiovascular risk were detailed. In the current Part 3 of this publication, we review personalised cardiovascular prevention, non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical treatment of specific risk factors, emerging treatment options, and par­ticipation in cardiovascular rehabilita­tion and prevention programmes based on ESC guidelines.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Insulin: alfa and omega]

KIS János Tibor, BALOGH Bernadett, KISS Zsófia, SCHANDL László

[Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is caused by the autoimmune death of insulin-producing β-cells. In the background there is by all probability the primary antigen (if the theory of primary antigen is correct) the insulin itself or the proinsulin. However, treatment of T1DM is virtually equivalent to the insulin treatment. The earlier we recognize T1DM and start treatment, the better gly­caemic results we achieve, the more likely we can maintain all functional β-cell stocks. Insulin also plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis, development and treatment of T1DM, thus insulin is the alpha and omega in this condition.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Modern insulin therapy using insulin pump or insulin pump and sensor]

GERÔ László

[Insulin was discovered 100 years ago. At this anniversary the present study concerns the applications of insulin pumps and sensors, emphasising the latest options in Hungary. Since January 1, 2020 the above devices are provided with 98% coverage by the National Health Insurance Fund for underage Type 1 diabetics and high school students up to 24 years. Adults with Type 1 diabetes may also obtain an insulin pump and sensor with 80% coverage of the so­cial health insurance. A sensor distributed by an independent local company will also be available in the upcoming months. It should be suggested that more and more unstable Type 1 diabetics use the insulin pump and sensors since this treatment stabilise the metabolism reduces the glucose level excesses and minimise the glucose varia­bility. All these measures are lowering the probability of diabetes related comp­lica­tions.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[30 years in diabetology reflected on the pages of Lege Artis Medicinae – 1990-2020]

WINKLER Gábor

[Commemorating the 30th anniversary of foundation the journal Lege Artis Me­di­cinae, the author endeavours to review the main developments of diabetology in the same period and arranges their reflections on the journal’s pages. He points out that similar to many other disciplines, the history of development has extremely been rich in the past three decades, thus he focused only on a few issues. The author analyses the changes in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and highlights specific aspects like the importance of early metabolic control, individualized treatment choices, a risk-oriented approach instead of a glucocentric direction, and the role of patient education and a health-conscious lifestyle, which have resulted in the holistic approach of our therapeutic strategy. While using relevant quotes, the author shows that the readers of the journal were also able to keep pace with all events and they were always provided with relevant information by au­thentic specialists of diabetology. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Attitude of spine surgeons towards the application of 3D technologies - a survey of AOSpine members

ÉLTES Endre Péter, KISS László, BARTOS Márton, EÖSZE Zsolt, SZÖVÉRFI Zsolt, VARGA Pál Péter, LAZÁRI Áron

Background - 3D technologies (3D virtual and physical model, 3D printing, computer aided engineering, finite element analysis based simulations) play an important role in personalized spine surgery. Objective - In collaboration with AOSpine a global, online survey-based study was performed in order to determine the acceptance rate and the factors which stand against the wider spread of 3D technologies. Methods - A survey containing 21 questions was developed and divided into five pages, every page corresponding to one chapter. Our analysis is based on the responses of 282 spine surgeons from 57 countries. To interpret our results in a global context, we used the Human Development Index of the respondent's countries in comparisons. Results - Significant difference between the AOSpine regions (p ≤ 0.05) was found, with the highest acceptance in Asia-Pacific region. There was no significant difference in acceptance score according to the field of spine surgery, or the surgical experience in years (p=0.77, and p=0.19). In the case of public practice, we found significantly higher acceptance compared to private and mixed (public and private) surgical practice (p ≤ 0.05). The acceptance of the technology varied based on the respondent’s resident country’s Human Development Index and was significantly different between „Medium” vs “Very high” (p = 0.0005) and „High” vs „Very high” (p=0.019) category. Significant positive correlation was found between the acceptance score and the HDI score (Spearman test, ρ = 0.37, p = 0.007). The main limitation factor was identified as the lack of information. Conclusion - There is high interest among spine surgeons towards the incorporation of 3D technologies into the clinical practice. Education, the healthcare system, and the economic environment plays a major role in acceptance. Our results provide the basis of a strategy to promote the application of 3D technologies.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC OF TYPE 2 DIABETES - CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES]

JERMENDY György

[The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has recently dramatically increased worldwide. While many factors contribute to the startling data, including changes in the diagnostic criteria of glucose intolerance, increase of life expectancy, manifestation of diabetes at younger ages, and increased detection of unrecognized diabetes due to more efficient screening, the genuine, steep rise in the incidence of diabetes is explained by the increasing prevalence of obesity. Among the late complications of both diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular diseases are particularly important. Insulin resistance due to visceral obesity plays a central role in the pathomechanism of type 2 diabetes. In the prevention of both type 2 diabetes and obesity, non-pharmacological intervention such as life style changes should be considered first. Supplementary pharmacological treatment should target all cardiovascular risk factors.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Antidiabetic therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes - The role of incretin mimetics]

GERŐ László

[Incretin mimetics represent a new group of antidiabetic drugs. They bind to their own receptor on the beta-cell membrane and increase insulin secretion in a glucosedependent manner. Thus, they rarely cause hypoglycaemia. Furthermore, they significantly reduce body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, they can be considered as an optimal group of antidiabetic drugs. The author reviews the clinical efficacy and safety of currently available incretin mimetics.]

Image challenge

What do you see on the feet of the diabetic patient?