Lege Artis Medicinae

[ Recommendation for the pharmacological treatment of involutional osteoporosis]

LAKATOS Péter, HORVÁTH Csaba, MARTON István, PAP Károly, POÓR Gyula, MOOT Vezetősége

FEBRUARY 01, 2000

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2000;10(02)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Perinatal postasphyxial brain damage and its obstetric prevention]

PAPP Zoltán

[The author provides an overview of the definition and aethiopathogenesis of fetal hypoxia and asphyxia, including possible forms of post asphyxial damages of mature fetuses as well as the incidence and neurological consequences of cerebralpalsy. Among from the screening methods of fetal hypoxia the special importance of colour-Doppler and pulse-Doppler technique (flowmetry), cardiotocography (CTG), non-stress test, biophysical profile examinations, amnioscopy and fetal pulsoxymetry are emphasized. In the prevention of fetal asphyxia the significance of preconceptional and prenatal care, the importance of maternal diseases, pathological conditions of the fetus and the umbilical cord, as well as the influence of factors during labour and delivery are also emphasized. The practice of the authors is supported by the recommendation of British obstetricians, when making a fetal scalp pH examination in case of pathological CTG findings, or performing a prophylactic cesarean section if the pH examination is not available. Since the number of postasphyxial damage in mature newborn infants is still high in Hungary, it is concluded, that an increase is required in the rate of cesarean sections when fetal asphyxia is present. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Practical questions of perinatal thyroidology]

ILYÉS István

[Characteristic features of maternal, fetal and neonatal thyroid functions are discussed. The role of maternal thyroid hormone transfer in fetal development is emphasised with the interpretation of the association between maternal and fetal thyroid functions. Thyroid disorders and dysfunctions during neonatal period are summarised and the influence of maternal thyroid disease to neonatal thyroid function is demonstrated. The role of iodine deficiency and importance of optimal iodine intake during pregnancy are also emphasised. Congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid dysfunctions of premature infants are shortly presented. The importance of prenatal care, screening for congenital hypothyroidism and thyroid function checks in premature infants are also pointed out. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Evaluating endocrine laboratory findings]

KOVÁCS L. Gábor, TOLDY Erzsébet, LŐCSEI Zoltán

[The clinical value of hormonal laboratory findings is determined by many more factors than of the conventional (non-endocrine) parameters. The increased complexity is partly due to the physiological and pathophysiological properties of hormonal biomolecules as well as to the characteristic differences in the analytical methods. Correct interpretation of the endocrine results requires the consideration of potential preanalytical errors and the collection and handling of samples done more carefully. Because of the low physiological concentrations of hormones, only microanalytical methods can be used. Endocrine parameters in clinical laboratories are usually measured with immunoassay methods these days. Due to the assay characteristics of these methods (e.g. cross-reactivity of the antibodies, specificity, technology-dependent differences in sensitivity), numerical values appearing on the laboratory reports – particularly if not accompanied with additional information - may be incorrectly interpreted by the clinicians. Therefore, plausibility control should be an integral part of the post-analytical tasks of a laboratory. The authors evaluate these specialties based on their own analytical and clinical experience as well as on literature data. It is concluded that correct endocrine laboratory report should contain not only data on reference values, but also the confidentiality limits of the given endocrine test. Subnormal values, provided they are of clinical relevance, should be evaluated together with the variation coefficient and the functional sensitivity, measured specifically in this lower range. The frequently asked question, whether a difference in endocrine results is due to biological factors determined by a disease, or to analytical problems, is particularly important when using dynamic tests. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Scientific Browser]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A case of juvenile haemochromatosis presenting adrenocortical insufficinecy ]

VÁRKONYI Andrea, KOLLAI Géza, ROMCSIK László, MÜZES Györgyi, TULASSAY Zsolt, TORDAI Attila, ANDRIKOVICS Hajnalka, PETER Kaltwasser Joachim, SEIDL Christian

[Juvenile haemochromatosis is a rare autosomally inherited disorder of iron metabolism causing severe iron overload in young adults. The organs mostly affected are liver, spleen, pancreas, heart and the skin similarly to the genetically also determined adult form. CASE REPORT - Contrary to most juvenile haemochromatosis cases characterised by secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, this patient presented with adrenocortical insufficiency. Involvement of the heart was present on diagnosis while liver showed normal architecture without increased iron content. Genetic analysis revealed that the patient did not carry the C282Y mutation, while the H63D mutation was present in heterozygous form. With hormone supply and regular vena sections the patient is free of complaints. CONCLUSION – This case demonstrates that severe iron overload can occur early in adult life without the presence of HFE gene mutations suggesting a putative gene defect responsible for juvenile haemochromatosis. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]