Lege Artis Medicinae

[Quality assurance in general medical practice]

SIMAY Attila, SZALAY Zsolt

OCTOBER 27, 1993

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1993;3(10)

[Quality Assurance (QA) has become a focus of increasing interest in the healthcare sector in recent years. This trend has also become increasingly evident in relation to general medical work. The outstanding work in this area in individual countries, with perhaps the most important results in England (1) and the Netherlands (2), has also laid the foundations for a coordinated strategy. This effort led to the creation of the European Working Party on Quality in General Practice under the auspices of WONCA (World Federation of Family Doctors) in 1991, with the participation of 15 countries, including Hungary. The aim is not to standardise but to raise the quality of quality assurance work to the highest possible level by exchanging experience (3). As Hungary is still at the very beginning of this task, although several major initiatives have been taken (4, 5, 6), it may be useful to briefly discuss the main issues involved.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The surgical treatment of shoulder instability]


[The author briefly reviews the static and dynamic stabilizing system and the biomechanics of the shoulder and describes his principles and techniques of the surgical treatment of instability. A modified Bankart procedure is used for recurrent anterior dislocation. Bone blocks are implanted in cases of locked posterior dislocation. Different forms of cranial instability are described as well as partial and total superior glenoidal lesions. The author discusses surgical procedures used in the treatment of these instabilities. Cranial instability leads to impingement syndrome, which results in rotator cuff lesions. These lesions increase instability and the increased impingement leads to further rotator cuff damage. This vicious cycle can be interrupted by surgical intervention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Clinical application of specific antibodies in immunotherapy of transplantation]


[In organ and tissue transplantation practice as well as in the therapy of autoimmune, haematological, immunological and oncological diseases, the possibility for applying immunotherapy is occuring more frequently. The paper deals with all those reagents which are primarily of polyclonal or monoclonal immunglobuline origin and play a significant role in the various cell-bound immune reactions on the surface of lymphocytes. In addition to the anti-lymphocyte or/rather anti-thymocyte globuline as well as the Orthoclone (anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) reagents well known in clinical practice, it also refers to other lymphocyte surface anti-marker monoclonal anti-bodies (anti CD4, -CD8; anti TCR, anti-LFA reagents) under clinical trial. The article reviews the possible uses of the group of immunotherapeutical reagents in the clinical practice of Kidney and bone marrow transplantation. The pharmacological mechanism, side effects, and prospects for a wider use of these reagents in the future are discussed.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The origin of serum catalase in healthy subjects and in some diseases]

GÓTH László

[The activity of serum catalase is highly increased in acute pancreatitis, hemolytic disorders and in some liver diseases, but there is no data on its tissue origin. The serum catalase activity was determined by a spectrophotometric assay in healthy subjects (n = 4275) as well as in increased erythropoesis (n = 424), in hemolytic diseases (hemolytic anemia = 12, megaloblastic anemia = 28, Zieve syndrome = 8, hemorrhage = 38), in acute pancreatitis, (n = 111), in liver diseases (fatty liver = 21, alcoholic hepatitis = 42, acute yellow atrophy = 18, toxic hepatitis = 15), and in liver congestion due to cardiac circulatory failure (n = 28). These diseases yielded increased serum catalase activity. This enzyme has no tissue specific isoenzymes, therefore mathematical and statistical approaches were used. The correlation between serum hemoglobin and serum catalase was analysed. The catalase release was estimated from the time activity curves of serum catalase and compared to its tissue equivalent. In healthy subjects about 60 percent of serum catalase derived from the erythrocytes and the rest from other tissues. During enhanced erythropoesis and in hemolytic diseases, similarly to hemoglobin, its source was the erythrocyte pool. In acute pancreatitis also the erythrocytes might be responsible for the increased serum catalase level. in some liver diseases as well as in liver congestion due to cardiac circulatory failure the increase of serum catalase derived from the liver cells. The diagnostic analysis of serum catalase requires the consideration of its increase as well as its origin. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Prenatal follow up of a complex cardiac malformation complicated with complete AV block]

SZABÓ István, CSABAY László, NÉMET János, HAJDÚ Júlia, PAPP Zoltán

[In a congenital disorder of heart development where the complex cardiac malformation is pared with complete atrioventricular block heart rate is stabile between 50–60 beats/min. Transfer of atrial impulses through the AV node is fully blocked and the slow rhythmic heart beat is maintained by a ventricular pacemaker. In a case of such a complete cardiac malformation recognized in week 32 of gestation and the AV block complication caused stabile 57–58 beat/min bradycardia. 2-di mensional, pulsed and color Doppler ultrasonography was used to identify the disorder and to follow up the intrauterine condition of the fetus. Cardiotocography (CTG) could not generate appreciable results at such a low heart rate. During observation no centralization of fetal circulation causing intrauterine hypoxia was recorded. Updated knowledge on the pathogenesis and obs tetrical management of the fetal third degree AV block is also presented. In this case ultrasonography allowed clear-cut identification of the disorder and also ensured correct evaluation of the intrauterine status of the fetus when other diagnostic methods for evaluation were not applicable. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Eurpean Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angioma Pectoris Study]


[Patients with more than 50% stenosis in one or more coronary arteries had significantly higher fibrinogen levels (p<0.0001). Reduced fibrinolytic activity was also observed in patients with coronary artery stenosis, mainly due to higher levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI). Decreased fibrinolytic activity was strongly associated with diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels, smoking and impaired left ventricular systolic pump function. Cholesterol levels correlated mainly with protein C and plasminogen levels.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]