Lege Artis Medicinae

[Physiological-pathological muscle atrophy in elderly - interventions potencially inhibiting this progressive process ]

SZÉKÁCS Béla1,2, MOLNÁR Andrea3, BESENYEI Attila2, MARTONY Zsuzsanna2

MARCH 20, 2019

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2019;29(03)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.29.015

[In old and very old age, one of the most prevalent signs of aged body’s decline is the progressive loss of muscle mass and function. First itself the physiological aging process can be dominant in the complex causative background but later it is usually intertwined with pathological mechanisms. The importance of muscle system is extremely high in the physiological regulation of various vital life processes The paper also points out the far-reaching consequences of sarcopenia syndrome that leads to general weakness, falls, traumas, acceleration of co-morbidities, rapidly declining self independence, ultimately frailty syndrome, and death. The initial body mass index has been recently replaced by a more adequate, more complex diagnostic approachment of sarcopenia that evaluates both muscle mass/strength and physical performance. Prevention or breaking the process of sarcopenia needs complex intervention which includes special fast protein rich diet with leucin and vitamin D combined with frequent physical exercise. ]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, II. Sz. Belgyógyászati Klinika, kihelyezett Geriátriai Tanszéki Csoport
  2. Szent Imre Oktató Kórház, Geriátriai és Gerontopszichiátriai Rehabilitációs Osztály
  3. Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition

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[2010 a new, complex screening program started in Hungary, named Nationwide Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Program in Hungary 2010-2020-2030. The screening was installed on a specially furnished lorry, which is able and will be able to get anywhere from big cities to the smallest villages. The Program as part of the “Heart and Vascular National Program” works with the support of 74 professional-scientific societies and companies. The screening program took place in a specially furnished lorry. The lorry has an easy access to the disabled, operation was performed with the quality control and permission of ÁNTSZ. Near the lorry there were activities for the preservation of health and prevention of illnesses. Within the framework of the Program in the largest mobile diagnostics center in Hungary 37 comprehensive surveys in free form. This enormous special screening station allows 5,100 tests to be performed at each of the 200 screening stations nationwide. The screening program for over 20 years provides 15 million trials on 3,000 scenes and 1 million adult visitors in free humanitarian. The European National Health Program and the National Program for the Prevention and Treatment of Car­dio­vascular Diseases co-ordinated by the Asso­ciation of Hungarian Medical Asso­ciations (MOTESZ) are implemented by con­sensual cooperation. Based on the results, it was re-confirmed that Hungarian population belonged to the high risk group in several aspects. Authors also outlined solution plans for general risk reduction and disease prevention. ]

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[Elevated LDL-C and/or triglycerides and decreased HDL-C levels contribute to development of vascular lesions. In the absence of detectable vascular disease the lipid values of providing vascular protection preferably with a healthy diet, regular physical activity and by trying to get out of harmful passions. If the healthy lifestyle is not effective enough, lipid-lowering medication may also be necessary in primary prevention. In the cases of inherited lipid disorders and in patients with high or very high cardiovascular risk it is necessary to take lipid lowering medications in effective dose. The Hun­ga­rian and the international guidelines have been formulated the targets of lipid values for vascular protection. The paper is trying to help for everyday medical practice, how to treat the dyslipidemic patients with the application of widely available lipid parameters and lipid lowering medications effectively. ]

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[Hypertension is the leading “silent killer” accounting for 10 million deaths worldwide. It frequently occures together with other metabolic risk factors, including type-2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia augmenting the global cardiovascular risk of patients. Their treatment and reaching target blood pressure means a real challenge for practising physicians. According to the recent hypertension guidelines RAAS-inhibitors are the first choice agents which can be excellently combined with diuretics. RAAS-inhibitor based therapy frequently needs to be completed with Ca-antagonist to which statin should be added in the presence of metabolic risk factors. The benefits of amlodipin/atorvastatin fixed combination are multiple: both agents are capable to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and to reach blood pressure and LDL target values. In addition the well-known poor statin-adherence can be improved with fixed combination which can contribute to the reduction of risk of these high-risk subjects. ]

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