Lege Artis Medicinae



SEPTEMBER 19, 2008

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2008;18(08-09)

[Since the discovery of the function of the deoxyribonucleic acid, research for decades focused on studying the protein coding regions in ever increasing details. At the same time, non-coding DNA sequences, which represent 98% of the genome, were considered an evolutionary byproduct, or junk DNA. Today, however, the large families of short, untranslated ribonucleic acid sequences, such as short interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA, rasiRNA or piRNA, revolutionize our knowledge on gene regulation. The review presents these short RNA molecules, and describes their formation and functions. The authors place special focus on the recently discovered microRNAs, a class of 21-24 nucleotides long RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation of their target’s amount by annealing to the corresponding messenger RNA. The genes of microRNAs are often localized to certain fragile sites of the genome that have been described to be involved in a number of tumours. Thus, it is not surprising that after the discovery of microRNAs the relationship of altered microRNA pattern and cancer has soon become the focus of research.]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, Genetikai Sejt- és Immunbiológiai Intézet



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[Smoking and Alcohol Consumption: Motivation of Hungarian and American Secondary School Students]

PIKÓ Bettina

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[The Discovery of Insulin]


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[Is continuous b-2 receptor agonist therapy safe in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?]


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FARKAS Katalin

[The microvascular bed is an anatomical entity, which constitutes of blood vessels smaller than 50 μm (i.e. arterioles, capillaries and venules), and its major function is the nutritive perfusion of organs and tissues. In search of cardiovascular diseases, there are growing evidences that impaired microcirculation plays an important role in the patophysiology of arterial diseases. Beside the well known consequence of diabetic microangiopathy in the development of diabetic complications, new data support the role of microcirculation in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis, as well. There are different non-invasive methods for the investigation of the microcirculation. Capillarmicroscopy, laser doppler flowmetry and transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement are used not only in the scientific research, but also in the clinical practice. Laser doppler flowmetry gives us the possibility to assess microvascular endothelial function and other early microcirculatory disturbances. Capillarmicroscopy is particularly useful in the diagnosis of different autoimmune diseases. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement is mostly used in the diagnosis of critical limb ischemia, because it has proven prognostic relevance. Vascular specialist should prescribe all investigations. General practitioners play key role in the early diagnosis of vascular diseases that can be achieved through the screening of patients at risk for vascular disease. In case of suspected vascular disease, the patient should refer to angiology outpatient clinic, to decide further investigations and prescribe therapy. The conservative treatment includes the complex cardiovascular risk management supplemented with medication, acting on the microcirculation.]

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[The impact of tiotropium on the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking patients with COPD]


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[Roma cancer patients’ illness cognition and their attitudes toward medical treatment]


[INTRODUCTION - In this qualitative pilot study, our goal was to investigate the illness representation of gipsy cancer patients and to examine their attitudes toward medical treatment. SAMPLE AND METHODS - Deep interviews were made with 20 persons (60% female; Mage=39.2±15.1 years). The included participants approximately represented the group composition of the Hungarian Roma population. RESULTS - For most of our respondents, cancer is a frightening disease meaning some kind of punishment and the end of life. The potential causes of the disease usually remain completely incomprehensible. The participants proved to be very under-informed in relation to their treatment - even when compared to the low level of information among Hungarian cancer patients in general. In the face of the supporting presence of family members, our respondents often stated that there was nobody to share their deeper emotional problems with. About half of the patients reported on impolite and inefficient treatment attributed to prejudice against their Gipsy identity. However, deeper analyses revealed, that in most of these cases, mistreatment was a consequence of the general shortcomings of the health care system (e.g. lack of time) - being labelled as discrimination by our respondents. Almost every participant sees his/her only role in recovery merely in the participation in medical treatment - not attributing enough significance to life style changes and even less to alternative / complementary medicine. CONCLUSION - Special training to improve communication skills with gipsy patients is needed - especially for general practitioners. We also suggest preparing handouts to Roma cancer patients that provide easy-to-understand information on the medical treatments and health behaviours that serve the coping with cancer and their prevention.]

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