Lege Artis Medicinae


BONCZ Imre1, SÁNDOR János2, OLÁH András3, BETLEHEM József3, SEBESTYÉN Andor4, KISBENEDEKNÉ Gulyás Kinga4, DÓZSA Csaba4

JANUARY 21, 2004

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2004;14(01)

[INTRODUCTION - The aim of this study is to analyse the local inequalities in the access and utilization of special home nursing within Hungary focusing on the South-Transdanubian Region. DATA AND METHODS - In the first part of the study we compared the indicators of the access and utilizations of special home nursing at national and county level. In the second part of the analyses we made a detailed analyses of utilization data of home nursing in the three counties (Baranya, Somogy, Tolna) of the South- Transdanubian Region of Hungary. Data is derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund of Hungary for the period 1998-2002. RESULTS - The access of population to the special home nursing increased from 83,8% (1998) to 95,1% (2002). The utilization rate increased from 74,8% (1998) to 84,1% (2002). Within the South-Transdanubian Region we found significant local inequalities in the utilization of services (number of cases, number of visits), which were represented by the tools of geographical information system. CONCLUSIONS - There have been significant differences in the access and utilization of home nursing with remarkable within country inequalities.]


  1. Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár, Szakmapolitikai és Koordináló Fôosztály
  2. Pécsi Tudományegyetem Közegészségtani Intézet
  3. Pécsi Tudományegyetem Egészségügyi Fôiskolai Kar, Klinikai és Ápolástudományi Intézet
  4. Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular aspects of impaired glucose tolerance: A review through the STOP-NIDDM Trial]


Lege Artis Medicinae



[Bioinformatics is one of the most important element of genomic research revolutionising biomedical science. This review describes the phenomena of genomic variance and comparative genomics. Briefly, the review summarises the identification procedure of new genes and gene expression patterns highly important in diagnostics. Bioinformatic procedures make possible the rapid detection of pathogens and have principal role in molecular drug design technologies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[The metabolic syndrome has gone by several names over the past two decades. The diagnostic criteria were proposed by the ATP III of NCEP in 2001 and were accepted by European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension in 2003. The criteria (abnormal waist rate, HDLcholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure and fasting glucose) are listed and the presence of any three of these factors is considered sufficient for diagnosis. The prevalence of syndrome affects about a quarter of the Hungarian population with hypertension. The metabolic syndrome is associated with premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including an excess of sudden deaths. According to the recent literature data the main component of the syndrome, the obesity, especially with abdominal fat distribution is associated with hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance with related abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level and the small, dense LDL cholesterol particles are the parts of lipid component of syndrome. A variety of environmental (obesity, smoking, physical inactivity) and genetic factors (genetic mutations of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, CETP and PPA receptors) and the impaired FFA metabolism have all been related to lipid abnormalities. Sympathetic hyperfunction participates in the pathogenesis and complications of metabolic syndrome. Possible factors augmenting sympathetic activation include alterations of insulin, leptin, FFA, cytokines, sleep apnoe. Other important factors as the endocrin concept, the hypothalamus-hypophysis- adrenal axis, endothelial dysfunction are discussed. The impaired muscle insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis (FFA induced GLUT-4 inhibition) is the major cellular factor of insulin resistance. There is a continuous process from the insulin resistance state (with hyperinsulinemia) into the 2T diabetes mellitus (with hypoinsulinemia).]

Lege Artis Medicinae



Lege Artis Medicinae



All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[Health status and costs of ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary]

PÉNTEK Márta, GULÁCSI László, RÓZSA Csilla, SIMÓ Magdolna, ILJICSOV Anna, KOMOLY Sámuel, BRODSZKY Valentin

[Background and purpose - Data on disease burden of multiple sclerosis from Eastern-Central Europe are very limited. Our aim was to explore the quality of life, resource utilisation and costs of ambulating patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary. Methods - Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed in two outpatient neurology centres in 2009. Clinical history, health care utilisation in the past 12 months were surveyed, the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was conducted from the societal perspective. Results - Sixty-eight patients (female 70.6%) aged 38.0 (SD 9.1) with disease duration of 7.8 (SD 6.7) years were involved. Fifty-five (80.9%) had relapsing-remitting form and 52 (76.5%) were taking immunomodulatory drug. The average scores were: Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.9 (SD 1.7), EQ-5D 0.67 (SD 0.28). Mean total cost amounted to 10 902 Euros/patient/year (direct medical 67%, direct nonmedical 13%, indirect costs 20%). Drugs, disability pension and informal care were the highest cost items. Costs of mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-3.5) and moderate (Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0-6.5) disease were 9 218 and 17 634 Euros/patient/year respectively (p<0.01), that is lower than results from Western European countries. Conclusion - Our study provides current inputs for policy making and contributes to understanding variation of costof- illness of multiple sclerosis in Europe.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[ICD based data collection of sick-pay data in county Vas]


[INTRODUCTION - The analysis and evaluation of sick-pay data presents great challenge for a health insurance fund. It is very important to collect sick-pay data related to the medical diagnosis of the patients. DATA AND METHODS - The aim of the study is the analysis of sick-pay data in County Vas, Hungary. The new approach focuses on the ICD (International Classification of Diseases) based sick-pay reports which contains the cause of sicknesses according to ICD terms. The data was derived from 1998. RESULTS - During the period involved there were no significant change in the number of ICD codes used by the doctors. The cases shorter than 30 days account for 84,43 % of total cases, while they account for the 41,05 % of total disability to workdays. The most common ICD group measured by the number of cases is group Nr. X. (Diseases of the respiratory system), while most common as measured by the days spent on sick-pay is group Nr. XIII. (Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue). Significant differences were found between men and women. Analysing the diagnosis within the main groups - ranked by the number of cases - the diseases of respiratory system and of the musculo-skeletal system are found in leading positions. Based on the number of sick-pay days the diseases of musculo-skeletal system are on the first place. CONCLUSIONS - Results of this analysis can provide valuable information for both the National Health Insurance Fund and the physicians and have contributed to the implementation of the national „Disability to work Monitoring System”.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[How it all started: Untold Chapters of Nursing History in Hungary as testified by foxed Documents Part 1.]

SÖVÉNYI Ferencné, PERKÓ Magdolna, FEDINECZNÉ Vittay Katalin

[The article elaborates on the untold chapters of nursing history in Hungary, based on research in archives. The situation of nursing in Hungary in the first half of the 20th century is described, when nursing and nursing education became issues of outstanding importance and secular nursing appeared alongside faith based nursing. Several nursing organisations worked to address the unacceptable situation of nursing and strove to raise the status of nursing so as to allow this self-sacrificing vocation to take its rightful place in society. The tools to achieve this goal included providing professional education and training, creating professional literature and safeguarding nurses’ interests. The Hungarian National Association of Female and Male Nurses that came into being as a grass-root organisation in 1902, and its president, József Michalicza, an unreasonably forgotten figure in Hungarian secular nursing were instrumental in pursuing these goals. The article also mentions several dedicated figures in Hungarian nursing history, due to whose commitment Hungarian nurses were represented in the International Council of Nurses from 1933 until the interference of politics. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Health insurance aspects of physiotherapeutic care of neurology disorders in outpatient care]

MOLICS Bálint, BONCZ Imre, LEIDECKER Eleonóra, HORVÁTH Cs. Zoltán, SEBESTYÉN Andor, KRÁNIZC János, KOMOLY Sámuel, DÓCZI Tamás, OLÁH András

[Background and purpose – The aim of our study is to analyse the ambulatory rehabilitation care of patients with neurological disorders in the field of physiotherapy. Methods – Data derive from the database of the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Administration (year 2009). The analyses covered patients with diagnosis „G00–G99 Diseases of the nervous system” according to the International Classification of Diseases and underwent physiotherapy treatment. Results – In 2009 altogether 190986 patients with neurological disorders received physiotherapy treatment in outpatient care, representing 1331675 cases and got 388.215 million Hungarian Forint health insurance reimbursement. The number of patients with nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders was 39 patients/10 000 population for males and 66 patients/10000 population for females. The number of patients with cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes was 49 patients/10000 population for males and 35 patients/10000 population for females. The number of patients with episodic and paroxysmal disorders was 33 patients/10000 population for males and 52 patients/10000 population for females. Conclusion – In the outpatient physiotherapy care the utilization indicators of females were higher in nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders and episodic and paroxysmal disorders, while in cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes the utilization of male was higher. There are important age and gender inequalities in the utilization of physiotherapy care of patients with neurological disorders.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The public’s attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in Hungary ]


[This research focused on the knowledge and attitude toward to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the general population of Hungary. There are only a few studies in the international literature focusing on the public’s attitude towards ECT, and no such study has been published from Hungary. Participants were reached through social media and asked to fill out a semi-structured questionnaire on internet that comprised seventeen questions. Participation in the survey was entirely voluntary and anonymous. Participants of the survey were not working in health care; their answers to the questionnaire were compared to those of health-care workers. The result showed a significant difference between healthcare workers’ and lay people’s knowledge and attitude towards ECT. Two third of lay participants have never heard about ECT. Those familiar with ECT were relatively well-informed about its certain aspects yet rejection of ECT was significantly higher in the group of lay participants than in health-care workers. Lay people’s incomplete knowledge and negative attitude towards ECT was confirmed by this survey. The dissemination of reliable information – which should be the shared responsibility of mental health professionals and the media – would be vitally important to disperse the prejudices and doubts about ECT.]