Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hierarchy, responsibility Professional knowledge ]

FENYVESI Tamás

JULY 27, 1994

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1994;4(07)

[Many of the difficulties in the health sector go beyond the confines of the profession itself, and are often social and economic, or social in nature. Before the reader is alarmed, I do not intend to spend two pages analysing this voluminous range of problems. However, it is worth highlighting an issue in the pages of a professional journal, if only because some of them are mainly professional in nature, yet have become part of political debates and events.]

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[The authors summarize the relevant ultrasonic findings in case of suspected fetal chromosomal aberration. Some of these signs are detectable during routine ultrasonic screening examinations. In high-risk cases, prenatal chromosomal analysis is recommended. The following ultrasonic findings indicate a situation of high risk: disturbances of the lymphatic and amniotic fluids (e.g. hydrops, hygroma colli, polyhydramnios, nuchal edema), certain skull and brain alternations, abnormalities of the thorax and abdomen, and „minor” findings such as a single umbilical artery, choroid plexus cyst, pyelectasy, or changes in the size or shape of the long tubular bones, if these signs are accompanied by other anomalies or growth retardation.]

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[Obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs in approximately 2% of the adult population, is the more common of the two major forms of sleep apnea. The conse quences and dangers of excessive daytime sleepiness are emphasized along with the other well-known characteristics of sleep apnea syndrome. Both the decreased upper airway muscle tone during sleep and the negative pressure due to breathing through the obstructed airways may cause upper air ways to collapse. The history has a very important role in the clinical assessment, while the role of the physical examination is limited. An exact and reliable diagnosis may be arrived at through laboratory evaluation, e. g. polysomnography (PSG), Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), or radiologic examinations. Among conservative treatments, reduction of the body weight is usually effective in mild to moderate cases. In severe apneas, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is the current treatment of choice. The efficacy of surgical intervention is still controversial. According to most authors, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) has a 50% success rate. Most recently good results have been obtained with maxillo-facial surgery in a variety of selected patients. ]

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