Lege Artis Medicinae

[Getting Experiences without Drugs – An Interview with School Psychologist Edit Lippai dr. on Current Dependencies]

NAGY Zsuzsanna

MARCH 20, 2015

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2015;25(03)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Curative Tokaji ]

MAGYAR László András

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Protection of gastrointestinal system in cardiovascular diseases]


[Cardiovascular preventive drugs (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, aspirin, inhibitors of platelet aggregation, anticoagulants) are among the most frequently used medicines all over the world. Gastrointestinal (GI) complications (hemorrhage, ulceration, perphoration) are among the most frequent side effects of these drugs, however, differences in their pharmacodynamics properties and other pleiotropic effects may substantially modify these unwanted events. Authors, based on international and Hungarian guidelines, summarize the most important data for GI protection, focusing on the use of H-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Physician and Science 3. – The Objective Physician or the Remedy Machine ]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of hypoxia in tissue regeneration and in development of amplified aggressive fenotypes in malignant cancer]


[Several diseases are accompanied by hypoxic stress; elimination of it is an important physiological process. Our body provides a protective function which delays damage and destruction by hypoxia. In case of necrosis, it provides the mop up of the damaged area. This security system starts the regeneration in cells of the hypoxic zone which surrounds the necrotic area, resulting in the survival of the cells in hypoxic environment and ensuring the handling of the necrosis. The key molecules of the system are the hypoxia-induced factor molecules. The review discusses the physiological role of tissue hypoxia and normoxia and its effects on tissue regeneration. The physiological system triggered by the hypoxia-induced factor plays an important role in embryonic development, in wound healing and in numerous diseases (eg. myocardial infarction, stroke, vaculities, etc). Unfortunately, this system also plays a key role in several malignant tumors by rising the development of cells with increased aggressive fenotypes as well. The physiological process of regeneration starts in the hypoxic tumor cells aided by the hypoxia-induced factor system. The process results in neovascularization, and in the case of tissue damage, in the mop up of the necrotic tissue and in the restoration of tissue oxygenisation. However, after the formation of the new vascular network, tumor cells accustomed to hypoxia will not die but keep their original uncontrolled proliferation and anaerobic nature. Moreover the malignant nature of the cells will be increased by the genetic changes generated by the system of hypoxia- induced factors. The role of the hypoxia-induced factor system in tumor progression is discussed by the example of one of the most malignant tumors, malignant melanoma.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Biosimilar insulins on the horizon]


[Nowadays human insulins and insulin analogues are exclusively used in the clinical practice, when insulin therapy is needed. The patents of human insulins are expired and will expire soon for glargine, the first long-acting, basal insulin analogue preparation. The reliable production of biosimilar insulins is a new challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Independently developed insulins with appreciable clinical efficacy have already become available in some countries where the quality criteria of regulatory process in place are less strict than in the European Union. The first approval for true biosimilar insulin, i.e. for biosimilar glargine was given in Europe in 2014. In this article, the characteristics of biosimilar insulins, especially the difficulties in the manufacturing process are reviewed in comparison with generic drugs. It is of note that potential efficacy and safety differences may occur due to even minor changes in the production, formulation and storage of the biological drugs. Therefore, biosimilarity should be investigated by detailed comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Moreover, similar clinical efficacy and safety should be documented by randomized, comparative clinical trials. The potential impact of altered immunologic profile of biosimilar insulins should also be carefully monitored. ]

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Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Risk of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Focus on aceclofenac]


[Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently used pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a number of studies emphasized that NSAIDs were damaging not only the gastrointestinal (GI), but also the cardiovascular (CV) system, could increase the blood pressure, the frequency of coronary events (angina, myocardial infarction) and stroke incidence, as well as they might deterio­rate renal functions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) did not find evidence that administering NSAIDs could increase the risk of developing COVID-19 or worsened the condition of COVID-19 patients. However, unwanted effects of specific drugs differ substantially in their occurrence and seriousness as well. It seemed to be for a long time that the NSAIDs provoked higher GI-risk was closely related to the COX1/COX2 selectivity, like the cardiovascular (CV) risk to the COX2/COX1 selectivity, however, the recent data did not prove it clearly. Based on the available literature while pondering the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events, among all NSAIDs the aceclofenac profile seemed to be the most favourable.]

Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]