Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cost minimization analysis of basal insulin analogues in the treatment of type 2 diabetes]

MERÉSZ Gergő1, TABÁK Gy. Ádám2,3, KALÓ Zoltán4,1

DECEMBER 18, 2012

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2012;22(12)

[INTRODUCTION - Basal insulin analogues are essential drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Basal insulin analogues have been shown to reduce the frequency of hypoglycaemia versus NPH insulin, and thus may be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we present a cost-minimisation analysis of basal insulin analogues, comparing insulin glargine and insulin detemir available in Hungary. METHODS - A literature review was conducted to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials with a duration of 12 weeks or more in which a direct comparison of insulin glargine and insulin detemir was made in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a meta-analysis of the eligible trials, the following endpoints were investigated: metabolic status, body weight, frequency of hypoglycaemia, insulin doses administered and the number of insulin injections required. If a high heterogeneity (I2>75%) was found, meta-regression was performed to identify the underlying reasons. The funder’s perspective was applied in the cost-minimization analysis by taking into account the cost of the drug and of medical devices necessary for its administration, based on the daily number of insulin injections. RESULTS - No further studies were found in addition to those included in a metaanalysis published by The Cochrane Library. On the basis of three eligible studies, insulin detemir was injected more frequently compared with glargine (weighted mean difference: 0.42 95% CI 0.14-0.69 injections/day). High heterogeneity was present in case of two endpoints: the incidence of overall hypoglycaemia per patient-year (I2=83%), and daily basal insulin dose in units per body weight (I2=94%). The reason for the high heterogeneity in hypoglycaemia rates was not identified by meta-regression; however, the difference in insulin doses per body weight was negatively associated with body weight (-0.027 IU/kg per 1 kg, 95%CI: -0.051; -0.004). On the basis of the present meta-analysis and meta-regression, our calculations suggest that treating an average weight (90 kg) patient with type 2 diabetes with insulin glargine would result in an annual cost reduction of 93 452 HUF compared with insulin detemir by employing gross public drug prices. CONCLUSION - On the basis of the available clinical evidence, insulin glargine might be a cost-saving alternative of insulin detemir in an average-weight patient with type 2 diabetes. In an era of scarce resources, the role of therapeutic alternatives offering cost savings with the same efficacy become more important. The generalisability of our conclusions might be influenced by potential differences in the manufacturers’ claw-back rate of detemir vs glargine insulin.]


  1. Syreon Kutató Intézet
  2. Semmelweis Egyetem, ÁOK, I. Sz. Belgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest
  3. Budapest és Epidemiológiai és Népegészségtani Tanszék
  4. Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egészség-gazdaságtani Kutatóközpont



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Some thoughts at the 50th anniversary of my medical graduation]

BOGA Bálint

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of balneotherapy in osteology]


[The authors overview the role of hydroand balneotherapy in osteology. As Hungary is very rich in thermal-mineral water, this kind of therapy has a great importance in the rehabilitation of locomotor diseases. In the past years, an increasing number of data have been published about the immunomodulatory, metabolic and analgesic role of hydro- and balneotherapy. Although balneotherapy’s mechanism of action has not been clarified yet, a number of reviews and metaanalyses have found that hydro- and balneotherapy have a beneficial effect on locomotor diseases. The majority of these articles - many of them written by Hungarian authors - discusses the treatment of arthrosis. Furthermore, an increasing amount of data is available on calcium supplementation with mineral water. In this paper, we discuss the role of hydro- and balneotherapy in the therapy of osteological diseases, on the basis of the available evidence.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Invictus – The Road to Reconciliation ]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[E-physicians and e-patients in Hungary - Qualitative survey about physicians’ internet use and attitudes toward their patients’ internet use]

GYŐRFFY Zsuzsa, MESKÓ Bertalan

[BACKGROUND - Physicians and patiensinternet use has been challenged the med-ical and the social studies as well. InHungary, approximately 100% of physi-cians use the internet, and about 80% ofpatients search for medical informationonline.METHODS - A qualitative, pilot study(N=83) was performed among practisingphysicians in Hungary. The structuredinterview was focused on medical internetuse, and the attitudes of doctors regardingtheir patients’ internet use.RESULTS - The interviewed physicians usethe internet for the daily work. However76% of them do not support their patients’intenet use: firstly because of professionalcauses, secondly because of the changes ofthe doctor-patient relationship. 24% of theresponders agreed with the use of internetof patients for medical reasons.CONCLUSIONS - Our study is a pilot forquantitative research. Our findings suggestthat Hungarian physicians start to open tothe new communication technologies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Lajos Gulácsy, the Masked One ]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Switching from human basis-bolus insulin treatment to analog insulins, from clinical aspects]

KIS János Tibor

[During treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, early insulin treatment improves beta cell function, slows the progression of the disease and improves glycaemic values in the long term. In these cases, the strictest glycaemic target values can be achieved by basal-bolus insulin treatment. Furthermore, the development of chronic complications can be halted most effectively by normoglycaemia. It is a special task to switch from human basal-bolus insulin treatment to analog insulins. The author presents practical, clinical aspects of this switching through a case study.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Inhibitors of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter: possible new drug in armamentarium of diabetologists]

BECHER Péter, PATAI Árpád, MÁJER Katalin

[An important aim of diabetologists is prescribing modern antidiabetic drugs with not only glucose lowering but also an insulin sensitivity increasing property with weight loss without hypoglycaemic episodes and with positive effects on the pancreatic β-cells. A selective inhibition of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 protein leads to glucosuria, reduces HbA1c and body weight without hypoglycaemias. This benefits can also moderate the cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. At the moment this molecules are under examination in different phase clinical studies. It seems that the first drug from this group for the clinical use will be the molecule dapagliflozin. The main side effect may be a vulvovaginal mycotic infection.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New oral antidiabetic agents - New aspects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus]

GERŐ László

[During the past years several new oral antidiabetic agents have become available and more new drugs of this type are expected to appear on the market. New products appeared in both groups of insulin sensitizers and insulin secretagogues. Modern insulin secretagogues are characterized by immediate and short action. As a consequence, insulin secretion will approach the physiological secretory pattern. The rapid, short-term insulin output prevents the abnormal increase of postprandial glucose level and - at the same time - the danger of late hypoglycemia will decrease. The combination of insulin sensitizers with the new insulin secretagogues provides the possibility to apply the basisbolus therapeutical principle to type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral agents.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


DURA Eszter

[Recent data suggest that the copper-containing semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase enzyme (SSAO) may play a role in vascular endothelial damage through conversion of certain endogenous monoamines, such as methylamine, into cytotoxic aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. SSAO is present in various human tissues and in the serum. Elevated SSAO activities have been reported in patients with both types of diabetes mellitus. We have demonstrated that the activity of serum SSAO is significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy. Our clinical results support the hypothesis that elevated SSAO activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of microvascular diabetic late complications, such as retinopathy. The enzymatic conversion of the endogenous monoamines (e.g. methylamine, aminoacetone) into toxic aldehydes and hydrogenperoxide may be one of the possible mechanisms of the development of microangiopathy. Also, the vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) function of the molecule can cause leukostasis and leukocyte activation through increased leukocyte adhesion, resulting in worsening of the capillary circulation and hypoxia. Further prospective, larger studies are needed to elucidate the role of the possible association between serum SSAO activity and highrisk proliferative retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The pharmacological manipulation of SSAO activity might be an interesting new concept for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.]

Image challenge

What do you see on the feet of the diabetic patient?