Lege Artis Medicinae

[COPPS (COlchicine for the Prevention of the Postpericardiotomy Syndrome)]

MATOS Lajos

FEBRUARY 22, 2013

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2013;23(02)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Economic relations of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in hopitals]

BENEDEK Zsófia, KRENYÁCZ Éva

[In this review, we compared economic and physiological observations reported in the literature that are related to laparoscopic versus conventional colorectal surgery. Our study group has modeled the patient journey of those with colorectal disease, and analysed the accounting and controlling data of an impatient institution in Budapest for various types of colorectal interventions. We compared the costs determined for laparoscopic and conventional colorectal surgery and the actual costs spent by the inpatient care institution with financing data of the National Health Insurance Fund. On the basis of our study, we conclude that in Hungary colorectal surgery performed by laparoscopy is much more expensive that conventional surgery as the cost of the operating room - in particular, the disposable tools - is high and currently it is not financed as a separate intervention type. In case of colorectal diseases, laparoscopic and traditional interventions have not been differentiated, observed and compared yet.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New possibilities in treating hyperlipidemia]

CSÁSZÁR Albert

[In the fight against atherosclerosis, statin therapy is one of the most important elements. On the basis of data from the past few years the clinical introduction of a more effective statin is not expected, however, in order to improve cardiovascular prevention further development of agents that reduce LDL-cholesterol levels more effectively than currently used statins is warranted. The need for the development of new cholesterol-lowering therapeutic options is also supported by the existence of statin intolerance. The currently available combination therapies do not provide additional mortality benefits compared with statin monotherapy. The new solutions include fourth-generation statin molecules that primarily aim to enhance the NO-donor capacity of statins, and to reduce their muscle toxicity. Certain compounds that affect cholesterol synthesis (squalene synthase inhibitors, MTP inhibitors, ACAT inhibitors) need to be further analysed because of the risk of side effects. The use of an antisense oligonucleotid that blocks the mRNA of apoB, the main protein on the LDL-particle and antibodies that inhibit the protein PCSK9 that promotes the intracellular breakdown of the LDL-receptor seems to be much more promising. Besides the lowering of LDLcholesterol level, studies have focused on the benefits of increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. Unfortunately, recently completed analyses show that new forms of the strong HDL-C increasing nicotinic acid have not provided any additional benefit when added to statin therapy. Similarly, the adverse effects associated with the promising CETP inhibitors and the lack of additional benefit when combined with statins question the significance of this drug class. The necessity for an absolute increase of HDL-cholesterol levels needs to be revised on the basis of new data, in other words, the exact role of the HDL particle in atherosclerosis needs to be further investigated.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Public health care prevention in Hungary: are we doing what we should?]

KISS István, DANKOVICS Gergely, BARNA István, DAIKI Tenno, KÉKES Ede

[Primary prevention means health protection and disease prevention in the population, whereas secondary prevention includes early diagnosis and treatment to prevent the progression of diseases and the development of complications. Both ways of prevention are present in public health programs, but primary prevention measures are usually less substantial. METHODS - The “Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Program of Hungary 2010-2020” was organised in 2010 as part of the National Cardiovascular Program. In this program, a mobile screening station (set up on a truck) tours the country and provides a complex health status and risk assessment at village fairs as well as at offices. RESULTS - In the past three years, this station provided complex screening for 65267 individuals and lifestyle counseling and health education for 132964 people at 528 locations, touring 58807 km. The aim of the Program is to provide a comprehensive overview of the health status of the Hungarian population, and to make it possible to measure and record the long-term changes of the health status of the Hungarian population. Another goal is to inform those being screened about their health status and to highlight the importance of health protection and disease prevention. On the basis of the results, in the past three years the Program has been able to achieve its targets, which provides a good basis for its continuation.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Participation: Autonomous Involvement in the Matters of Health ]

BUDA Béla

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A remarkably successful therapy with gliclazid treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus]

KIS János Tibor

[INTRODUCTION - Sulfonylureas have become sidelined as second-line preparations as their use has been associated with an increased occurrence of weight gain and hypoglykaemia. In the case reported, however, therapeutic goals have been achieved with the use of gliclazid. CASE REPORT - A 45-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus was using a metformin XR preparation. His HbA1c level was high and his main complaint was distention. His abdominal complaint was also obstructing his diet. Because of the high HbA1c level and overweight I initiated incretin-mimetic treatment. Due to the worsening of abdominal complaints I replaced the treatment with gliclazid, after thoroughly informing the patient. With gliclazid treatment the patient's abdominal complaints subdued, he was able to maintain his diet, lost 14 kg in three months and the parameters of his carbohydrate metabolism normalised. CONCLUSION - In case of abdominal complaints, a repeated anamnesis of the diet can reveal metformin intolerance. In such cases, the use of gliclazid can lead to therapeutic success with no gastrointestinal adverse effects.]

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Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

Autonomic nervous system may be affected after carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: A possible mechanism for persistence of symptoms after surgery

ONDER Burcu, KELES Yavuz Betul

After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose – The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Neuroscience

To handle the HaNDL syndrome through a case: The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis

ÇOBAN Eda, TEKER Ruken Serap, SERİNDAĞ Helin, SAKALLI Nazan, SOYSAL Aysun

The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a rare entity. This disease has been related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by fluctuating neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. We describe a case of a 47 years old man with acute onset of headache and aphasia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (25 cells/μl, 100% lymphocytes). Electroencephalogram showed moderate slow rhythm in the left hemisphere, with temporoparietal predominance, and without epileptiform activity. His blood tests as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were normal. With the diagnosis of HaNDL syndrome the patient was accepted in the Department of Neurology and discharged with full recovery.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Interdisciplinary approach of vestibular system impairment]

PONGRÁCZ Endre

[In the first part of this review the definition of vertigo/dizziness was discussed. The major difference between the two signs is the exsistence of the direction, which is specific for vertigo. Dizziness is a frequent complaint in the clinical practice. Its frequency is increasing with advance of age, to intimate the play of declining cognitive process in the pathogenesis of its. The popular health significance of vertigo is in the rowing number of the patients. The onset of the most cases with acute vertigo appears between secundums and minutes so the patients will be provided in circumstances of emergency department. First of all three form schould be take into account: neuronitis vestibularis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere syndrome. Without tipical periferal signs of vertigo, central cause should be searched, principally stroke (lysis possibility). The differential diagnose of the different dizzeness/vertigo forms according to the elapsed time of the onset or congenital and acquired nystagmus was created in tables. The recommendations of the therapy of acute and chronic dizziness/ vertigo syndroms are, lack of results of evidence based trials doubtful. The more often used drugs based on clinical trials are discussed as vinpocetine, betahistine and piracetam. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that the last molecule is eligible to use both in periferal and central type of vertigo syndroms.]