Lege Artis Medicinae

[Connection between fetal development and adult diseases - Long acting effects of stress affecting the mother and the fetus]

MOLNÁR Ildikó

OCTOBER 20, 2010

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2010;20(10)

[The stress responses affecting the mother and the fetus have a life-long consequence in the manifestation of adult metabolic disorders. The perinatal stress inducing fetal adaptation contributes to alterations in tissue structures and hormone regulations as well as could lead to intrauterine growth retardation. The newborns with low birth weight are associated with the glucocorticoid, adrenaline and insulin resistance making them postnatal susceptible to obesity, diabetes type 2 and hypertonia. The number of newborns with low birth weight increase, therefore the prevention of adult diseases originating from perinatal misprogramming represents a frequent challenge for health services and society.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Disorders of despair]

BÁNFALVI Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Successful localization of an insulinoma with angiography]

BAKÓ Barnabás, LÁZÁR István, TARKÓ Erzsébet, OROSZ Péter

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Carvedilol and its antioxidant effect]

KOVÁCS Imre

[Carvedilol, the typical basic variant of the third generation beta blocker drugs is a complex adrenergic blocker that also has Ca channel blocking effects. It has no effect of the metabolism and has a pregnant antioxidant effect that is significant for cardiac and hypertension target organ protection. Its beneficial effect on cardiac decompensation, on target organ protection in patients with hypertension and on primary and secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease is proven by clinical studies. The effect of free radicals trapping - not shown by the majority of beta blockers - plays a major role in these beneficial effects. Inflammatory factors and free radicals (ROS) play a central role in cardiovascular diseases and can be regarded as prognostic markers of vascular damage. Elevated levels of glucose, lipids, or elevated intraluminal pressure triggers the production of various free radicals. The anti-inflammatory effect of carvedilol results out of its antioxidant (scavenger) and ROS suppressive effects. Besides its complex adrenergic blocking effect, this ability of carvedilol gives a molecular explanation for its efficiency proven by clinical trials.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A new DPP-IV inhibitor: saxagliptin]

KIS János Tibor, MÉSZÁROS Gabriella

[Saxagliptin is a selective, potent inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). By inhibiting DPP-IV, saxagliptin reduces the degradation of endogenous incretin hormones, resulting in increased glucose-dependent insulin and decreased glucagon secretion from the pancreas islets. Clinical trials of saxagliptin as monotherapy and as combination therapy with other oral antidiabetic medications including metformin, glibenclamide, glipizide, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have demonstrated clinical benefits in different glycaemic endpoints. Due to its glucose- dependent mechanism of action, saxagliptin as monotherapy or in combination with metformin results in a very low risk for hypoglycemia. It has also been shown to be generally well-tolerated, with not having any relevant effect on weight. The authors summarize the most important saxagliptin trials.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[International trials of immunogenicity of H1N1 vaccines]

CSÁSZÁR Albert

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC OF TYPE 2 DIABETES - CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES]

JERMENDY György

[The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has recently dramatically increased worldwide. While many factors contribute to the startling data, including changes in the diagnostic criteria of glucose intolerance, increase of life expectancy, manifestation of diabetes at younger ages, and increased detection of unrecognized diabetes due to more efficient screening, the genuine, steep rise in the incidence of diabetes is explained by the increasing prevalence of obesity. Among the late complications of both diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular diseases are particularly important. Insulin resistance due to visceral obesity plays a central role in the pathomechanism of type 2 diabetes. In the prevention of both type 2 diabetes and obesity, non-pharmacological intervention such as life style changes should be considered first. Supplementary pharmacological treatment should target all cardiovascular risk factors.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Pregnancy and insulin resistance: theoretical and clinical issues]

BARANYI Éva, WINKLER Gábor

[During pregnancy, metabolic changes occur physiologically, which are enhanced by the presence of gestational or praegestational diabetes. The basis of these changes is the increasing insulin resistance throughout pregnancy, which in diabetics may result in hyperglycaemia with undesirable clinical consequences and complications. These complications can be prevented in diabetic pregnant women by maintaining the physiological metabolic state typical of healthy pregnant women. Thus the aim of the treatment is to achieve a normoglycaemic state throughout pregnancy. In most cases this is only possible by the use of insulin, along with appropriate dietary measures. Intensive insulin regimes are successfully used in the metabolic control of pregnant diabetic women, and the use of insulin analogues and insulin pump may also be considered.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Gestational diabetes mellitus and neuropathy: examining the relationship]

STELLA Péter, KERÉNYI ZSUZSA, NÁDASDI Ágnes, TABÁK Gy. Ádám, TAMÁS GYULA

[BACKGROUND - Little is known about the relationship between gestational diabetes and late diabetes complications. The relationship between these abnormalities was investigated in this study. PATIENTS, METHODS - Besides reclassification of their glucose tolerance, the prevalence and correlating factors of diabetic neuropathy were evaluated in 123 gestational diabetic (GDM) women controlled prior by our team during their pregnancies. 26 pregestational type 2 diabetic patients served as controls. Mean follow-up time was 7.2 years. Vibration perception threshold was measured to diagnose peripheral neuropathy, while cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was evaluated using the battery of four cardiovascular reflex-tests. RESULTS - From 123 prior GDM women, 63 were characterized as having diabetes (52.9%), while 14 had impaired glucose tolerance (11.8%). Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed in 23.6 %, parasympathetic neuropathy in 37.4 %, while sympathetic neuropathy was confirmed in 7.3 % of the patients evaluated during follow-up visit. Association between abnormal glucose tolerance and neuropathy was statistically significant only in the case of parasympathetic neuropathy (p=0.0001), and this relationship was independent from elevated BMI, microalbuminuria and the higher rate of hypertension observed in these women (p=0.006). Since the number of abnormal neuropathy tests were also higher than expected in women with normal glucose tolerance, we hypothetised a cross-sectional link between neuropathy and insulin resistance. An additional analysis comfirmed this association between insulin resistance and parasympathetic neuropathy independent of metabolic status of these patients (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS - The importance of gestational diabetes, which is sometimes underestimated by many clinicians, was highlighted by our study since it projected a high frequency of parasympathetic cardiovascular neuropathy in these patients. This form of diabetes not only projects the development of late onset type 2 diabetes, but could also act as a predictor of late diabetes complications. According to our results diabetic parasympathetic neuropathy may be linked to type 2 diabetes/ insulin resistance syndrome, and could play a role in the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[INSULIN RESISTANCE: FOCUS ON THE ADIPOSE TISSUE]

URICH Elemér

[Insulin resistance is defined as a state of subnormal biological response to normal quantity of insulin. This phenomenon was first described by Hinsworth and Kerr in 1939, however it has come to the centre of interest only in the last two decades. It is the central pathogenetic factor of type 2 diabetes and the more complex clinical entity of metabolic syndrome, consequently also referred to as insulin resistance syndrome. In the background of insulin resistance alterations of the adipose tissue can be observed which clinically means obesity in most of the cases, however, this issue cannot be simplified to obesity only as increase in adipose tissue growth may be beneficial in certain cases. Current article discusses the explanation of this paradox and the pathophysiologic link between adipose tissue and insulin resistance. It also reviews the therapeutic aspects of insulin resistance emphasizing the role of thiazolidinedione type drugs having recently joined the therapeutic palette.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE METABOLIC SYNDROME CLINICAL APPEARANCE, DIAGNOSIS, PATHOMECHANISM]

KÉKES Ede, CZURIGA István

[The metabolic syndrome has gone by several names over the past two decades. The diagnostic criteria were proposed by the ATP III of NCEP in 2001 and were accepted by European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension in 2003. The criteria (abnormal waist rate, HDLcholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure and fasting glucose) are listed and the presence of any three of these factors is considered sufficient for diagnosis. The prevalence of syndrome affects about a quarter of the Hungarian population with hypertension. The metabolic syndrome is associated with premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including an excess of sudden deaths. According to the recent literature data the main component of the syndrome, the obesity, especially with abdominal fat distribution is associated with hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance with related abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level and the small, dense LDL cholesterol particles are the parts of lipid component of syndrome. A variety of environmental (obesity, smoking, physical inactivity) and genetic factors (genetic mutations of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, CETP and PPA receptors) and the impaired FFA metabolism have all been related to lipid abnormalities. Sympathetic hyperfunction participates in the pathogenesis and complications of metabolic syndrome. Possible factors augmenting sympathetic activation include alterations of insulin, leptin, FFA, cytokines, sleep apnoe. Other important factors as the endocrin concept, the hypothalamus-hypophysis- adrenal axis, endothelial dysfunction are discussed. The impaired muscle insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis (FFA induced GLUT-4 inhibition) is the major cellular factor of insulin resistance. There is a continuous process from the insulin resistance state (with hyperinsulinemia) into the 2T diabetes mellitus (with hypoinsulinemia).]