Lege Artis Medicinae

[Background: Efforts to introduce universal health insurance in the US]


JANUARY 27, 1993

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1993;3(01)

[Proposals for (various forms of) universal compulsory health insurance have been a recurring theme in American political struggles since the early 1910s. After the failure of President Truman's attempt in 1948, in the mid-1960s Johnson managed to push through the adoption of Medicaid and Medicare - in effect a compromise to the political debate on universal health coverage in the early 1960s. (Medicare is health insurance for the elderly paid for by the federal government, Medicaid is health insurance for the poor, jointly funded by the individual states and the federal government.) This compromise, however, did not satisfy the advocates of universal health coverage.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs]


[The beta-blockers have been primary in cardiovascular pharmacology since the 1960's. Clinical experiences in the last 25 years have confirmed that the beta-adrenergic blockade is essential in treating the different forms of angina pectoris. Hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and all situations including acute myocardial infarction and some rhythm disturbances qualified by sympathetic overdrive. The beta-blockers have been shown in large scale clinical trials to reduce the cardio vascular morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension and post-infarction period. The possibility of using them as a combined therapy with a great number of other drugs without any difficulties, is very important. Toxicity is rare with beta-blockers and the side effect profile is generally good. Therefore, there is no question that the risk/benefit ratio is weighted toward the benefit. Nevertheless there are some problems such as hemodynamic profile, and effects on lipid metabolism, etc. Research has advanced from the first generation to the third generation with direct or indirect effects on the vascular bed, producing strong vasodilation. Because of the above mentioned facts, it is essential to know correctly the pharmacological effects and precise pharmacokinetics, of the beta-blockers. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vasocilator - Heart Failure Trial 1.]


[After one year, the mortality rate was 12.1% in the hydralazine + isosorbide dinitrate group and 19.5% in the placebo group, representing a 38% reduction in mortality in those receiving active treatment, and 25.6% (hydralazine + nitrate) and 34.3% (placebo) after two years, and 36.2% (hydralazine + nitrate) and 46.9% (placebo) after three years. Over the entire follow-up period, there were 91 deaths in the prazosin-treated group (49.7%), 72 (38.7%) in the hydralazine + isosorbide dinitrate-treated group and 120 (44%) in the placebo group. In the hydralazine + nitrate group, left ventricular ejection fraction increased significantly at week 8 and at 1-year follow-up, but did not change between patients treated with prazosin or placebo.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Primary non-hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid]

ÉSIK Olga, NÉMETH György, PÓCZA Károly

[Three cases of primary non-Hodgkin thyroid lymphoma from the past 30 years are reported, with particular regard to the diagnostics, staging, differential diagnostics, treatment, follow-up and survival. In stages IE and the relatively localized II E, surgical intervention (bilateral intra- or extra capsular thyroidectomy with selective neck node dissection) is indicated, followed by postoperative radiotherapy to the regional lymphatics (neck and upper mediastinum). Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended be cause this is the only mode of treatment capable of reducing the occurrence of the distant relapses responsible for the majority of tumour-related deaths. The therapy in the advanced stages II E, III E and IV E does not differ essentially from the treatment of other nodal lymphomas: cytostatics are the main pillar of the therapeutic plan. The complementary use of irradiation is generally indispensable, but radical surgical intervention is no longer indicated.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of nitrogen-monoxide in the regulation of certain physiologic processes and in the pathogenesis of diseases]


[In the recent 10 years more and more data have been available concerning to the physiologic and pathophysiologic role of nitrogen monoxide. In this study on the basis of literature data the effects of nitrogen-monoxide are summarized, especially on immunobiological processes and the pathogenesis of certain diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The microlithiasis as an "idiopathic" etiological factor in recidivous acute pancreatitis]


[The authors report two cases of unknown etiology of multiple acute recidivous pancreatitis. The long established diagnostic procedures such as intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography did not reveal any pathological, correctable etiological factor. Therefore in a symptom free period ERCP was perfor med, in which microlithiasis was found as a floating layer in the gallblader. Three years after cholecystectomy, the patients were symptom free, and recidivous pancreatitis has not occured. In connection with these cases the authours review the other possible etiolo gical factors, diagnostic procedures and the rapeutic possibilities in the „idiopathic" group.]

All articles in the issue

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]


Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic]


[The rapidly spreading SARS-CoV2 respiratory virus has evoked an epidemic with serious aftermath around the world. In addition to the health effects, the global economic damage is actually unpredictable. At the same time, the pandemic has launched a series of unprecedented collaborative scientific research, including the development of vaccines. This study summarizes up-to-date information on vaccines, immune memory, and some emerging clinical effects.]