Lege Artis Medicinae

[A Change in Attitude in Rheumatology – The Textbook of Rheumatology Edited by: Gyula Poór]

GAÁL János

NOVEMBER 10, 2008

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2008;18(11)

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Forty Tablets of Digoxin]

CSAPÓ Gábor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[One minute ECG]

ZÁMOLYI Károly

Lege Artis Medicinae

[UP-TO-DATE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B]

HORVÁTH Gábor

[Hepatitis B virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide, as well as in Hungary. The chronic infection is usually symptomless, its most dangerous risks are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The latter may occur without development of liver cirrhosis, so it means a potential complication for patients with inactive phase of infection, as well. Criteria of the indication of antiviral treatment have changed in the last years due to the flare of our knowledge about the natural history of the disease. In our days quantitative determination of hepatitis B viral nucleic acid titer is essential for diagnosis. Formerly, a HBsAg positive patient with normal liver enzymes had been regarded as inactive carrier, and antiviral treatment had not been advised. In our days, the phase of the infection and the necessity of the treatment can not be determined without measurement of nucleic acid titer. Liver biopsy and, if inflammation or fibrosis is present, antiviral treatment is indicated, if the nucleic acid titer is >20 000 IU/ml in HBeAg positive, and >2000 IU/ml in HBe negative cases, respectively. Interferon alpha is the gold standard of treatment for chronic B hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alpha-2a is used because of its better pharmacokinetic properties. Oral agents include nucleoside/ nucleotide analogues with rare and mild adverse effects, and they may be given to patients with decompensated liver disease. Their main disadvantages include the development of drug-resistance, and the very low ratio of HBsAg-anti-HBs seroconversion. Recent drugs like adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir have replaced lamivudin, which has been in use for the longest time, because they are more effective and resistance against them is less frequent.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Selective Memory?]

KAHÁN Zsuzsanna

Lege Artis Medicinae

[OPTIMIZATION OF PAIN THERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOKINETICS - INNOVATIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS]

ANTAL István, KLEBOVICH Imre

[Medicinal preparations with durable analgetic effect are essential for therapy of the chronic pain. Controlling drug release allows the influence of fate of drug in the body as well as prolongation of duration of action. Development of innovative dosage forms as drug delivery systems offers increased efficacy and tolerability to improve patient's quality of life. Beside maintaining continuous therapeutical effect, extended drug release allows the spacing of dosing frequency. In addition, the more advantageous dosage regimen may improve the patient compliance during drug therapy. The review focuses on the aspects required to design drug carrier systems with original pharmacokinetic profile based on special pharmaceutical technological methods in order to optimize drug therapy for pain management.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical neurophysiological methods in diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases]

NAGY Ildikó, FABÓ Dániel

[Neurophysiological methods are gaining ground in the diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular disease. While the role of the EEG (electroencephalography) in the diagnosis of post-stroke epilepsy is constant, quantitative EEG para-meters, as new indicators of early efficiency after thrombolysis or in prognosis of patient’s condition have proved their effectiveness in several clinical studies. In intensive care units, continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients became part of neurointenzive care protocols. SSEP (somatosesnsory evoked potencial) and EEG performed during carotid endarterectomy, are early indicative intraoperativ neuromonitoring methods of poor outcome. Neurorehabilitation is a newly discovered area of neurophysiology. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Brain computer interface mark the onset of modern rehabi-litation, where the function deficit is replaced by robotic tehnology. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Acute bilateral drop foot as a complication of prolonged squatting due to haemorrhoid

KOKSAL Ayhan, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye

Drop foot is defined as difficulty of dorsiflexion of the foot and ankle due to weak anterior tibial, extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Cauda equina syndrome, local peroneal nerve damage due to trauma, nerve entrapment, compartment syndrome and tumors are common etiologies. A 32-year-old male patient was applied with difficulty in dorsiflexion of both of his toes, feet and ankles after he had squatted in toilette for 6-7 hours (because of his haemorrhoid) after intense alcohol intake 2 weeks before. Acute, partial, demyelinating lesion in head of fibula segment of peroneal nerves was diagnosed by electromyography. This case was reported since prolonged squatting is an extremely rare cause of acute bilateral peroneal neuropathy. This type of neuropathy is mostly demyelination and has good prognosis with physical therapy and mechanical devices, but surgical intervention may be required due to axonal damage. People such as workers and farmers working in the squatting position for long hours should be advised to change their position as soon as the compression symptoms (numbness, tingling) appear.

Clinical Oncology

[Immunotherapy of lungcancer – an update]

OSTOROS Gyula

[Ten years ago the median survival of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was less than one year. In the case of SCLC the situation did not change. There are revolutionary new possibilities in the treatment of NSCLC (histology based cytotoxic chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy etc.). Unfortunately there is no signifi cant development in treatment strategy of SCLC in the last 30 years. Nowadays in NSCLC immune check point inhibitor therapy is a novel treatment method in the clinical praxis as well. The integration of the PD axis and the CTLA4 inhibitors in the complex therapy of the management of NSCLC is a new challenge. The pembrolizumab monotherapy in fi rst line setting is a new standard of care with high PDL1 expression. In second line setting the pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab widely used in clinical praxis as well. In locally advanced disease of NSCLC after radiochemotherapy the durvalumab maintenance monotherapy showed a signifi cant progression free survival benefi t, comparing to placebo. We have got new treatment possibilities in the treatment of SCLC as well. The results of clinical trials with antibody conjugate therapy are promising. The nivolumab monotherapy and the combination treatment of nivolumab + ipilimumab gave promising results as well. In the treatment of SCLC and NSCLC there is a need for biomarker selected therapy (tumor mutational burden [TMB], DLL3, cMyc etc.). Based on the new positive results of the clinical trials there is a possibility to transform lung cancer from a subacute disease to a chronic illness.]