Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Socio-cultural environment as a factor influencing perception of overweight and obesity]

VĚRA Olišarová, VALÉRIE Tóthová, FRANTIŠEK Dolák

DECEMBER 30, 2014

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice - 2014;27(06)

[The increase of incidence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide problem. Its therapy, as well as prevention, require holistic perception of the issue. The results demonstrate that these diseases cannot be perceived separately but from the perspective of health impact. The socio-economic area, the influences of ethnicity, cultural particularities and a lot of other factors must be considered. This article is focusing on the relation between the socio-cultural environment and perception of overweight and obesity as factors which can be directly reflected with preventive and therapeutic measures. The results show that ethnicity, cultural particularities, acculturation level, social status etc. are factors that influence the incidence of the relevant diseases to some degree. At present, there is lack of sufficient research studies which support the creation and implementation of culturally adequate interventions not only on the territory of the Czech Republic but worldwide. ]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Comparative analysis of attitudes during stroke among risk-exposed gypsy and caucasian hungarian population]

SÁNTHA Emese, PAPP László

[Aim of the study: The authors’s aim was to examine causasian and gypsy hungarians attitude towards illness and their knowledge about stroke. Further aim was to study whether the social and financial status and scholastic qualification have an impact on attitude during illness. Sample and methods: A self-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The authors asked 53 gypsy hungarians with a response rate of 85% (45 in total) and 50 causasian hungarians (response rate: 100%, 50 in total). Results: The gypsy persons have less knowledge about stroke than hungarians. The gypsys’ sociodemographic indicators are significantly worse than the other study group. Bad financial conditions and low employment rate seem to sustain the aversive attitude towards illness. Conclusions: If the non-desirable attitude is sustained by low qualification, employment rate and bad financial conditions, then the settlement of these areas could have an effect on the persons’ health. This study expands previous results, since it shows that the attitude towards illness is not only influenced by the knowledge about health and sickness, but also by the level of education. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Disabled children in the family]

MÓRICZ Lászlóné

[Aim of the study: The arrival of a disabled child at the family is not a happy event at all. The whole life of the family would change and they must face lots of difficulties and impediments. Parents of disabled children become underprivileged financially and socially. They must continuously deal with the structural problems of the social system and the probability of out casting process which are the objects of this study. Sample and methods: Present case study is about a girl suffering from Mucopalysaccharidosis disease and her family. This descriptive study is based on observations, data collecting and analyzing and interviews with the mother. Results: This case is a perfect example to show the structural problems of the social system, which can be latent or not having received the necessary emphasis as most of the time only the parents concerned can see them so they remain unsolved. At the same time it causes great permanent changes having considerable effects on the life of the family. Conclusions: Solutions to the above mentioned problem can be the specialization of the education, the inspection of the nursing districts’ boundaries, the prevention of burning out syndrome of the helpers with proper trainings or if necessary, where there would be only one possible solution, the modification of the legislation.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Complications and affecting factors of the healing after amputation]

KISS Bernadett Mária

[Aims of the study: To assess whether what complication following primary amputation and what are the chances of the proportion of patients healing who were treated with diabetic foot syndrome and/or lower extremity vascular disease at the Surgical Ward of the Hospital Siofok. Furthermore, to assess the factors that adversely affect the process of healing (addiction, other diseases, type of care after postoperative period and social conditions). Sample and methods: Patients were amputated by reason of diabetic foot syndrome and/or lower extremity vascular disease at the Surgical Ward of the Hospital Siofok between January of 2012 and September of 2013. (N=100) The method of data collection was analysis of the patient’s documentations. Results: 52% of the sample affected by the post-primary lower limb amputation complications. There was no significant correlation between the type of care after postoperative period and conduct of reamputatio. There was no significant correlation between the number of amputations experienced by the patients and the regular appearance of specialized controls. Conclusions: The proposals were formulated based on the following criteria: using for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vitamin D treatment: hormone therapy for patients who need it or simply a supplementation for everyone?]

SPEER Gábor

[Various medical associations issue different recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. These significant differences are partly explained by the different definition of normal vitamin D level and the use of completely different mathematical models to predict the increase in vitamin D level as a response to therapy. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the target vitamin D level is 20 ng/ml, whereas the Endocrine Society (ES) recommends 30 ng/m as the miminum target value. According to the ES, a 1 ng/ml increase of vitamin D level can be reached by a daily intake of 100 NE, while the IOM recommends 3.6 ng/ml. Moreover, the IOM states that the effect of therapy on serum level is nonlinear. These differences show that the ES and IOM have different views on the risk of adverse effects. The IOM recommends 400 IU vitamin D daily for children younger than 1 year, 800 IU for those above 70 years and 600 IU/per day for everyone else. The ES recommend 400-1000 IU daily for all infants and 1500- 2000 IU for adults. Screening, however, is not recommended by either society. To decrease uncertainty concerning the side effects of higher-dose vitamin D treatment, it is important to understand, use and support the function of the pharmacovigilance system of the pharmaceutical industry that manufactures and markets various (prescription, over-the-counter) preparations. This is what the author aims to highlight in the second part of this article. Using this system, both the doctor and the patient can help support and accept the justification of higher-dose vitamin D therapy.]

Ca&Bone

[The influence of menopause-related obesity and related changes of body fat distribution on the severity of sleep apnea]

GYŐRFI MÁRIA, SANDRA SÁNDOR, SZAKÁCS ZOLTÁN

[INTRODUCTION - The menopause is associated with an enhanced risk of obesity. During the postmenopausal period changes in the distribution of body fat lead to a variety of disorders. Obesity is among the major risk factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The prevalence of OSAS increases after the menopause. This study was intended to explore the relationship between the severity of sleep apnea and the quantity, as well as the distribution of body fat in postmenopausal women with this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Sixty-two postmenopausal women (aged 58.6±7.4 years) were studied. Patients suffering from OSAS - established by cardiorespiratory polygraphy - were enrolled. None of the subjects received hormone replacement therapy during the trial. Total and regional quantity of body fat was determined by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The distribution of body fat, the ratio of android-to-gynoid regional fat, as well as body mass index were automatically calculated by the software of the DXA machine. A specific region was defined to measure the fat content of the cervical region, extending from the mental protuberance to the clavicular plane. The reliability coefficient of the test method was calculated to check the accuracy of regional body fat measurement. The severity of obstructive sleep apnea was determined by cardiorespiratory polygraphy and expressed using the apnea/hypopnea index. RESULTS - Testing for independence in this population revealed the lack of independence between android-type obesity and severe OSAS. Specifically, 74% of patients with severe OSAS were obese (BMI>30 kg/m2). As with the android-type, the khi square test similarly refuted the independence between obesity and the severity of OSAS. Fat content of the cervical region was 25.2% in mild and moderate, and 30.2% in severe OSAS. Two-Sample t-test demonstrated the significant influence of cervical fat content on OSAS severity. CONCLUSION - Elevated BMI, android-type obesity, and higher relative fat content of the cervical region all aggravate obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[An examination of knowledge about cervical cancer Roma women in Hungary]

BOGDÁNNÉ BASA Eszter, VAJDA Réka, VÁRADYNÉ HORVÁTH Ágnes, KARÁCSONY Ilona, PAKAI Annamária

[The aim of our study was to assess the main reasons for romany women to stay away from cervical cancer screening and knowledge about cervical cancer. Methods: We carried out a quantitative, cross-sectional study with non-probability convenience sampling in 2016. Our sample consists of romany women living in the agglomeration of Nagyatád, Hungary (N=126). In the questionnaire we measured reasons for non-attendance and knowledge. During statistical analysis we calculated descriptive statistics, χc2-test and t-test (p<0,05). Results: Mean age of responders is 37,45±12,05 years. 26,2% of women have not attended any kind of gynecological screening in their life. Mean age of women when they attended for screening for the first time was 24,05±8,96 years (n=91). Main score of the knowledge test is 31,4±3,93 points. According to knowledge level there is no connection between attendants and non-attendants(p>0,05). Conclusions: The lack of knowledge determines the participating willingness, to increase has been possible by organized knowledge transmitter performances.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hypertension and diabetes mellitus]

SZEGEDI János, KISS István

[Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are endemics which affect large crowds; they play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Both diseases are cardiovascular risk factors, their co-occurrence increases the coronary risk. According to forecasts, there will be 60% increase in the number of hypertensive patients by 2025; it will affect 29% of the world’s adult population, 1.56 billion people. The number of patients with diabetes increases in all countries; 552 million diabetic patients should be expected by 2030. The simultaneous occurrence of both diseases may be a coincidence, but there is also causal relationship between the two diseases (diabetic nephropathy, metabolic syndrome). The two diseases often occur in endocrine diseases, and in connection with medicinal therapy (steroids, etc.). The simultaneous occurrence of these two diseases determines the therapeutic strategy. During the prevention and treatment of both diseases, the change in lifestyle has an important role (obesity, salt intake, physical activity).]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[United Nations program to reduce premature cardiovascular mortality by 2025 and the estimation of the success of the program]

KÉKES Ede, SZEGEDI János, KISS István

[Worldwide surveys show that cardiovascular (CV) mortality is the decisive element of total mortality. Between 1990 and 2013, the absolute number of CV deaths increased by 40.8%. Within this, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, such as the two main elements of mortality, have also increased to such an extent. Compared to the increase in absolute deaths, the age-standardized mortality rate per 100,000 population declined by 21.9%. The cause of the paradox is the development of therapy and the increase in the average age of the population. What is decisive for the lost life years (YLL) in CV cause of deaths IHD is moved from 4th to 1st place, stroke from 5th to third. This change is typical in the most regions of the world, including Central Europe and, above all, Hungary. The following factors contribute to increasing IHD and stroke mortality: smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes. In 2011, the United Nations Conference on Communicable Diseases a uniform resolution was made, that it is a key objective for all nations to reduce their premature mortality by 25% in 2025. The CV diseases have been highlighted in a separate program and their name was “Heart of 25 by 25”. The main objective is to reduce the of premature CV mortality (probability of dying between 30 and 70 years). The target consists of main points: 30% reduction in smoking, 25% reduction in the prevalence of high blood pressure, halt the rise in obesity and diabetes type 2. Worldwide estimations were made on what would be expected in 2025 when the program was successful or unsuccessful. If the current trend remains then 30% in women and 34% in men would increase premature mortality. If all factors are influenced, then the increase will be only 1% for women and a reduction by 6% for men for developed countries, a reduction in both sexes would exceed 20%.]