Hypertension and nephrology

[The interpretation of metabolic syndrome]

KÉKES Ede, KISS István

DECEMBER 08, 2012

Hypertension and nephrology - 2012;16(05)

[The significant increase of the splanchnic ectopic fat, the disturbance of carbohidrate metabolism, atherogenic dyslipidemia and high blood pressure creates the syndrome so called deadly quartet. These components promote the early appearance of cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, etc.) as well as the enormous growth of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was thought, that the ectopic fat is the only background of the syndrome and the insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia as well as the disruption of associated endocrine regulatory balance system and elevated sympathetic drive explain jointly the clinical events. We now know that cytokines released by ectopic fat issue (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 etc.) launch processes in our organism, which contribute to the development of vascular remodelling, endothelial dysfunction and in the end to that of atherothrombotic processes. The diagnostic criteria of the syndrome were changed continuously parallel growing theoretical knowledge till 2009, when on the Harmony Conference the important components of the syndrome were accepted, but some laboratory and other parameters do not enter into everyday praxis.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease and in renal failure]

KISS István

[The number of patients with chronic renal disease is growing steadily over the past decade. The reason for this is the increasing number of patients developing diabetes mellitus and hypertension, diseases that have common complication of chronic kidney disease. There is evidence that in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease high blood pressure is more common which has a very complex management. Renal patients were able to participate in a small number of clinical studies, so the evidence base of antihypertensive therapy from these studies is limited. Therefore professional guidelines made with thumbnail analysis are very important, which now appeared as the KDIGO recommendations in November 2012. The author of this quick presentation of the practice undertook to summarize the important messages of this paper.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Role of ramipril/amlodipine fixed combination in treatment hypertension of patients with chronic kidney disease]

VÁRKONYI Magdolna, SIMONYI Gábor

[Hypertension is an important risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) however CKD can cause hypertension. Untreated CKD may result in renal failure. Hypertension and CKD are important cardiovascular risk factors. Several mechanisms play role in the worsening of renal function. The main pathogenetic factor is the increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system (RAAS) that can result in glomerulosclerosis, destroy of nephrons and proteinuria. In the treatment of hypertension in CKD patients inhibiting RAAS is very important because ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers provide efficient control not only of blood pressure, but also of proteinuria, an effect associated with improved long-term nephroprotection. Between ACE-inhibitors ramipril has proved nephro- and cardiovascular protection effect. Fix combination therapy of ramipril with amlodipine has a very pronounced blood pressure lowering effect and can improve patient compliance too.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of health-centered approach in the management of hypertensive patients]

VÁLYI Péter

[In the everyday clinical practice the main objectives are the accurate establishment of the diagnosis and evidence based treatment of diagnosed disease. Besides the accustomed, rigorously medical, simplifying aspect, the bio-psycho- social approach is gaining an increasing importance. The objective of the article is, taking modern definition of health into account, emphasizing the importance of a new approach in the complex management of patients, having primary hypertension, a disease, impairing not only target organs, as well as the whole person, seriously influencing the health status of the affected person. In the management of a hypertensive patient, besides decreasing blood pressure, preventing and treating target organ complications and coexisting diseases, we should assess the whole person impairment, the effects of environmental and personal factors, and their influence on activities of daily living and participation in the life of the society, consequently, the changes in health status. This complex approach permits alone the more complete restoration of health of an affected person.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between the genetic polymorphism of heat-shock protein 72 and pediatric kidney diseases]

BÁNKI Nóra Fanni, RUSAI Krisztina, KÁROLY Éva, SZEBENI Bea, VANNAY Ádám, SALLAY Péter, REUSZ György, TULASSAY Tivadar, SZABÓ J. Attila, FEKETE Andrea

[Recurring urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood may result in chronic- and end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD), which leads to the initiation of dialysis and renal transplantation (NTx). Heat shock protein (HSP) 72 protects the kidney, whereas it refolds destroyed proteins and cells, and helps regenerating the renal tissue. The HSPA1B (1267)G allele is associated with lower HSP72 expression. This study assesses the role of HSPA1B A(1267)G polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 103 children treated because of recurrent UTI, 26 children after NTx and 235 healthy controls. Clinical data were also evaluated. HSPA1B (1267)GG genotype and HSPA1B (1267)G allele occurred more frequently in the UTI (p=0.0001; CI: 1.378-2.68) and in the NTx (p=0.014; CI: 2.29-187.7) patient group than in the controls group, and were associated with a higher risk for scarring (p=0.012; CI: 0.33-1.00) and renal malformation (p=0.0072; CI: 1.623- 140.6). Our data indicate a relationship between the carrier status of HSPA1B (1267)G allele and the development of recurrent UTI and ESRD, raising further questions about the clinical and therapeutic relevance of these polymorphism.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Terciary hyperparathyreosis or not? ? You cannot solve it alone: combined treatment in severe osteitis fibrosa cystica]

HERSZÉNYI Eszter, PATÓ Éva, SZALAY László, BÍRÓ Zsolt, György Andrea, DEÁK György

[Phosphate retention, consequential rise of the phosphaturic fibroblast growth factor-23 that decreases the level of calcitriol resulting in hypocalcemia facilitates the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and low calcitriol level result in increasing secretion of parathormone (PTH). While sHPT occures frequently in CKD, the development of therapy-resistant and hypercalcemic tertiary hyperparathyroidism is rare due to current therapeutic approaches. We present the case of a 41 year old, treated schizophrenic, hemodialized male patient with severe osteitis fibrosa cystica, severe hyperparathyroidism (PTH 2500 pg/ml) - considered to be tertiary - and with repeated pathologic fractures. While hospitalized, the patient was under supervised, combined therapy with the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol and the calcimimetic cinacalcet that resulted in marked decrease of PTH level to 1589 pg/ml. However, after discharge from the hospital due to the lack of compliance he failed to take his medications and PTH had risen to the initial level. This case demonstrates that severe hyperparathyroidism thought to be therapy resistant responds well to a combination of paricalcitol and cinacalcet however, patient compliance is essential to therapeutic success.]

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