Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of white-coat and masked hypertension: novelties]


APRIL 22, 2022

Hypertension and nephrology - 2022;26(02)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.26.011

[White-coat hypertension is a heterogenous clinical entity includes patients with lower and higher cardiovascular risk. It has a relative benign prognosis if it is not associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. It can increase, however, significantly the risk of new onset sustained hypertension and diabetes. The risk of cardiovascular events is unequivocally higher than that of normotensive patients, according to recent studies. Therefore, the proper evaluation of cardiovascular risk has utmost importance in white-coat hypertensive patients to determine the adequate treatment and follow-up. Masked hypertension, in the other hand, is not a benign phenotype, therefore regular screening with out-of office blood pressure measurements and pharmacological blood pressure lowering therapy is mandatory.]


  1. Dél-budai Centrumkórház, Szent Imre Egyetemi Oktatókórház, Anyagcsere Központ



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Hypertension and nephrology

[Chronic stress in the development of essential hypertension. Role of rilmenidine in the treatment of stress induced hypertension]


[Hypertension is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Several factors contribute to its development, including chronic stress, which may induce hypertension by increasing sympathetic activity. The signs of increasing sympathetic activity can be primarily detected in the initial phase of hypertension, which is characterized by the increase in cardiac output. In addition to the hemodynamic consequences (increase in cardiac output, tachycardia, coronary vasoconstriction, proarrhythmia), the increase in sympathetic activity has many harmful effects. Numerous metabolic (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia), structural and trophic effects (endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy), as well as thrombotic and humoral processes (procoagulation, enhancement of thrombocyte aggregation, sodium retention, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis) may develop and consequently damage body functions at many targets. Several different antihypertensive drug classes are available for reducing increased sympathetic activity, including peripheral alpha and beta blockers and centrally acting drugs. First generation antihypertensive drugs with central mechanisms of action (e.g. clonidine, guanfacine, alpha-methyldopa) is currently rarely administered and only for a few indications as they have a significant adverse events profile. Among centrally acting, second generation drugs, rilmenidine stimulates imidazoline-I1 receptors and thus beneficially influences mild or moderate hypertension that involves enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity.]

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[Novelties in the diagnosis and treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia]

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[X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common inherited cause of phosphate wasting. Its pathogenesis is complex, determined by the dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. We review herein the pathophysiology of XLH leading to multiple manifestations, stages of diagnosis and the treatment strategies. XLH is now in the scientific interest of pediatric nephrology, because a new treatment modality, burosumab became available in Hungary. Burosumab is a monoclonal antibody against fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). XLH is caused by the loss of function mutations in ”phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked” (PHEX) gene, which results enhanced secretion of the phosphaturic hormone FGF-23. The diagnosis of XLH is based on signs of rickets and/or osteomalacia and decreased growth velocity in association with hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting in the absence of vitamin D or calcium deficiency. Conventional treatment with oral phosphate supplementation together with active vitamin D (calcitriol or alfadiol) can improve bone metabolism, but only partial results can be achieved, and can promote side effects (nephrocalcinosis). The better understanding of the role of PHEX gene and FGF-23 levels in the pathomechanism helped to identify therapeutic options more properly. With monoclonal antibody therapy against FGF-23 the disease process can be interrupted, and complications can be prevented if the therapy is initiated in time. However, deformities already leading to disability cannot regress completely during burosumab therapy, highlighting the need of early diagnosis and the start of the biological treatment before complications.]

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[Cilostazol improves quality of life and lower limb functional capacity in lower extremity arterial disease regardless of age and gender – new results of the SHort-tERm cIlostazol eFFicacy and quality of life (SHERIFF) study]


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Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of white-coat hypertension in adolescents]

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[The importance of adolescent hypertension is that there is tight correlation between blood pressure data in adolescents and in adulthood. In case of sustained adolescent hypertension increase of the left ventricular mass and the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery is also detected. The prevalence of adolescent hypertension is about 1-4%. Among them 1-41% is the frequency of white-coat hypertension. Diagnosis can be set up with repeated measurements at home, or with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. In the background of adolescent white-coat hypertension the increased sympathetic activity has outstanding importance, which causes endothel dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness. There are growing evidence, that adolescent white coat hypertension is not a harmless condition, because sustained hypertension can develop in the future. In its case risk survey, start of non-pharmacological treatment, and follow-up has major importance.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[White-coat and masked hypertension]


[White-coat hypertension is a heterogenous clinical entity, that includes patients with lower and higher cardivascular risk. Its prognosis is relatively benign, when it is not associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, cardiovascular risk evaluation has utmost importance in patients with white-coat hypertension for the determina­tion of appropriate treatment. Masked hy­per­tension, however, is not a benign pheno­type, as it has been proven. Its early recognition, regular follow-up and effective anti­hypertensive drug treatment are mandatory. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

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