Hypertension and nephrology

[Statin therapy and hyperuricemia in hyperlipidemia - the clinical importance of atorvastatin]

CSIKY Botond

FEBRUARY 20, 2012

Hypertension and nephrology - 2012;16(01)

[Population based studies have proven that serum level of uric acid is a cardiovascular risk factor. Uric acid is produced in the human body as a result of the degradation of endogenous and exogenous purin nucleotids. It is eliminated mainly by the kidneys and in a small amount through the gastrointestinal tract. Serum uric acid can be decreased by some medical therapies. It has been demonstrated that atorvastatin treatment can decrease significantly uric acid level in patients with hyperlipidemia. Other statins do not seem to have such an effect. The uric acid lowering effect of atorvastatin is dose-dependent, and it most likely acts by increasing the renal elimination. The cholesterol, trgiglycerid and uric acid lowering effect of atorvastatin may have an important role in decreasing cardiovascular risk.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy in the revealance of kidney physiology]

PRÓKAI Ágnes, BERTA Nóra, VANNAY Ádám, SZIKSZ Erna, KIS-PETIK Katalin, FEKETE Andrea, TOMA Ildikó, TULASSAY Tivadar, KELLERMAYER Miklós, PETI-PETERDI János, SZABÓ J. Attila

[In this review we discuss the importance of the multi-photon fluorescence microscopy in the relevance of kidney physiology. Most functions of the kidney, including the clearance of metabolic waste products, maintenance of body fluid, electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure are achieved by complex interactions between multiple renal cell types and previously inaccessible structures that have been difficult to study. Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy offers an advanced imaging technique for deep optical sectioning of living tissues and organs with minimal deleterious effects. Dynamic regulatory processes and multiple functions in the intact kidney can be quantitatively visualized in real time with submicron resolution. This article reviews the application of multi-photon imaging technology that provided the most complex, spatial and temporal portrayal of renal function, depicting as well as analyzing the components and mechanisms involved in renal (patho)physiology such as glomerular structure and function, tubular transport, tubular-vesicular interaction and the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Chronotherapy of hypertension - individualized treatment according to the circadian blood pressure profile]

SZAUDER Ipoly, UJHELYI Gabriella

[The circadian (24 h) rhythm shows great importance in the pharmacotherapy of hypertension. There is growing interest in how to best tailor the treatment of hypertensive patients according to the circadian blood pressure pattern of each individual. Significant administration-time differences are in the chronokinetics of antihypertensive medication. The therapeutic coverage and efficacy of different antihypertensive drugs are all markedly dependent on the circadian time of drug administration. Administration of ACE inhibitors, ARBs, doxazosin and aspirin at bedtime, as opposed to upon wakening, results in an improved diurnal/nocturnal blood pressure ratio (recommended for nondipper type of hypertension). Other antihypertensive medications: calcium channel blockers and β receptor blockers are non effective at the circadian blood pressure pattern. Chronotherapy provides a means of individualizing the treatment of hypertension according to the circadian blood pressure profile of patients and constitutes a new option to optimize blood pressure control and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the risk of end organ injury.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Guidelines and clinical practice: clinical audit of CKD-MBD in Hungarian dialyzed patients]

KISS István, KISS Zoltán, SZABÓ András, SZEGEDI János, BALLA József, LADÁNYI Erzsébet, CSIKY Botond, ÁRKOSSY Ottó, TÖRÖK Marietta, TÚRI Sándor, KULCSÁR Imre

[Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease reach the end-stage renal disease in ever growing numbers and this necessitates the start of their dialysis treatment. The alteration of bone and mineral metabolism together with the development of the consequent organ damages starts in early stages of the chronic kidney disease. The goal of our present trial was to survey the alterations or characteristics (laboratory results, concomitant diseases and treatment practice in Hungary) of the calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) metabolisms [mineral-bone disorder occurring in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) or formerly known as secunder hyperparathyreosis or renal ostedistrophy] in patients chronically treated with dialysis. We collected and analyzed data/results from 5334 chronically dialyzed patients. We categorized the patients into different groups according to the guidelines of CKD-MBD so basically by the level of serum calcium and parathormone (PTH) (se-Ca level is below or above 2.4 mmol/l; PHT level is below 65 pg/ml, between 65-150, 150-300, 300-500, 500-800 pg/ml or above 800 pg/ml) and then the characteristic variances were compared. The two most frequent primary causes of end-stage renal disease are hypertension (23%) and diabetes mellitus (22%). Serum calcium level was below the upper limit of the normal range (Ca <2.4 mmol/l) in the greatest proportion of our patients (n=4386), while the parathormone level was elevated (PTH >500 pg/ml) in large portion of patients (n=833). Likewise in a significant part of our patients (44.9%) the parathormone level was low (PTH <150 pg/ml). The concurrent pathological elevation of both the serum calcium and the parathormone levels was found in only a minority of the patients (n=150; 2.8%). All of the drugs influencing calcium-phosphate and parathormone levels were already accessible during the time of origin of the trial in Hungary, although the financial limitations significantly affected their prescription. This is one of the reasons why local treatment practice was not fully aligned with guidelines. On the other hand the application of native vitamin D had an especially low prevalence. To sum up, our results match the European practice on the whole, although we definitely need improvement in reaching the treatment targets and also the clinical treatment practice leading to it. We will prepare a proposal for further analysis and longterm extension of this trial.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Functional and morphologic changes in patients with new-onset dyslipidemia after transplantation]

BORDA Bernadett, LENGYEL Csaba, VÁRKONYI Tamás, SZABÓ Viktor, SZEDERKÉNYI Edit, LÁZÁR György

[The principal risk factors for cardiovascular mortality after transplantation are hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, immunosuppressive therapy, obesity, and smoking. Among 115 patients, we assessed the risk factors for new-onset dyslipidemia, and their effects on the function and histopathology changes in the allografts one year after transplantation. Evaluating the risk factors and the initial recipient data, we observed a significant difference in age when comparing normal versus new-onset dyslipidemia patients (p=0.002). The difference in body mass index was significant one year after kidney transplantation when comparing normal with new-onset dyslipidemia patients (p=0.02). The trigliceride levels were significantly higher among those on cyclosporine- A than those on tacrolimus (3.02±1.51 mmol/l vs 2.15±1.57 mmol/l, p=0.004). The difference also proved to be significant for the total cholesterol level: 5.43±1.23 mmol/l versus 4.42±1.31 mmol/l respectively (p=0.001). In regard to allograft function there was no significant difference one year after transplantation between the normal and new-onset dyslipidemia patients. When assessing morphologic changes in the kidney, we observed significantly more frequent interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy among new-onset dyslipidemia than normal function patients. Disruption of lipid homeostasis is known to severely damage the allograft. Without timely recognition and treatment, these conditions may not only lead to irreversible damage in the allograft, but also increase cardiovascular risk.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Infections associated to vesicoureteral reflux disease in children below 1 year of age: the infulence of continuous antibiotic prophylactic therapy on the prevalence of resistant pathogenic bacteria]

MÁTTYUS István, KENESEI Éva, VÁSÁRHELYI Barna

[Background: The primary goal when children with vesicoureteral reflux disease (VUR) are treated is the prevention of pyelonephritis and persisting renal damage. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) is usually applied to reach this aim. The selection of resisting pathogens is the major risk of CAP. The aim of our survey was to describe the patterns of pathogenic strains leading to pyelonephritis in patients treated with and without CAP. Patients and method: The pathogenic strains implicated in pyelonephritis were identified in 48 and 56 children below 1 year of age who were treated with or without CAP, respectively, between years 2006 and 2011. Results: Breakthrough urinary tract infections developing in the presence of CAP are more frequently (with about a double risk) caused by polyresistant bacteria compared to infections that emerged without CAP. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the prevalence of resistant pathogens was about 40% even in infants without CAP. Discussion: The pattern of pathogenic strains leading to pyelonephritis alters significantly even in the cohort of children below 1 year of age treated with CAP to prevent infections associated to VUR. The risk may be decreased through the rational use of antibiotics. To reach this goal national guidelines on VUR should be updated and the role of additional non-antibiotic treatment should be established.]

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[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Subtype diagnosis, treatment, complications and outcomes of primary aldosteronism and future direction of research: a position statement and consensus of the Working Group on Endocrine Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension – excerpts]

KOVÁTS Viktória, ALFÖLDI Sándor

[Primary aldosteronism is a frequent cause of secondary hypertension requiring a specific pharmacological treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist or with unilateral adrenalectomy. These treatments have shown to reduce the excess of cardiovascular risk characteristically associated with this disease. In this consensus, we discussed the procedures for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, we address the strategies for the differential diagnosis of primary aldosteronism subtypes and therapy. We also discuss the evaluation of outcomes and provide suggestions for follow-up as well as cardiovascular and metabolic complications specifically associated with primary aldosteronism. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Cerebrovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease]

KISS István, NAGY Judit

[The reason of the unfavourable life expectancy of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not only the development of end-stage renal failure but the frequent appearance of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Chronic kidney damage itself is a cardiovascular risk state and the occurrence of CVD/associated diseases is significantly higher in chronic kidney failure. Beside risk stratification and valid treatment of CVD (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease e.g.) we and the international nephrological community have left the cerebrovascular diseases of CKD patients out of consideration. However, up to 50% of patients suffering a stroke will die immediately, only 10% of stroke survivors can continue his/her profession, but the others will be permanently disabled. High blood pressure is a strong predictor of stroke and of other CVD in most of the patients. In stroke risk reduction it is particularly important to reach the target blood pressure values. The main object of the “Live under 140/90 mmHg” programme of the Hungarian Society of Hypertension is to familiarize with target blood pressure itself and how to reach target blood pressure. In 2010, prevention, early diagnosis and management of stroke are the most important challenges of this programme (The Brain Control Programme). We think it is advisable to prepare and publish a clinical practice guideline in collaboration with stroke societies which is similar to the guidelines of international societies and of the Hungarian Society of Stroke but specific for CKD patients. This guideline would help to give a uniform, up-to-date treatment for the cerebrovascular diseases of CKD patients.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Lipid-lowering treatment in chronic kidney disease in light of new studies and recommendations]

MÁTYUS János

[Summary – Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which affects 10-14% of the population, dramatically increases the incidence and severity of cardiovascular (CV) disease, leading to death in the majority of patients before kidney replacement therapy. The current CV risk scorecards in CKD significantly underestimate the real risk and are therefore not applicable. For CV risk assessment it is recommended to use the combined GFR/proteinuria table also, which is used for CKD classification, was also adopted by the Hungarian CV Consensus Conference last year. The benefit of cholesterol- lowering treatment has also been demonstrated in CKD, and a 1 mmol/l reduction in LDL-c, as in the general population, reduces the incidence of major CV events by 20%. Recent clinical trials have clearly indicated that the lower the LDL-c values achieved, the lower the risk of future CV events, and therefore the new recommendations have tightened the LDL-c values to be achieved. ]