Hypertension and nephrology

[Reactivity Changes to Arterioles in Rat Polycystic Ovarian Model – Effects of Concomitant Vitamin D3 Treatment]

SÁRA Levente

FEBRUARY 20, 2014

Hypertension and nephrology - 2014;18(01-02)

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Fenestration of endothelium of juxtaglomerular arteriole]

ROSIVALL László

[For the first time, we demonstrated the fenestration in the endothelium of the distal portion of renal afferent arteriole (AA), which is unusual among high pressure vessels. The fenestrae are co-localized with renin producing granular epithelioid cells; this arrangement makes it likely that the relatively large renin molecules may use this path to enter into the plasma. We also demonstrated that the length and area of this fenestrated segment 1) correlates with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), 2) may change by age, in response to some stimuli such as thirst and in some diseases, 3) allows filtration of fluid prior to the glomerular filtration, which can be as high as about 30% of GFR. This morphology and the high filtration volume in AA is one of the most striking observations of renal microcirculation, and question several basic renal physiological issues.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Effect of age on the function of renin-angiotensin system]

VÁMOS Zoltán, CSÉPLÕ Péter, KOLLER Ákos

[Angiotensin II (Ang II) by activating angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1R) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors in the regulation of vasomotor tone and thus systemic blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that aging alters Ang II - induced vasomotor responses and expression of vascular mRNA and protein angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). Thus, carotid arteries were isolated from newborn, young, middle age, old and senescent rats and their vasomotor responses were measured in a myograph (DMT-600) to repeated administrations of Ang II. Vascular relative AT1R mRNA level was determined by qRT-PCR and the AT1R protein density was measured by Western blot. Contractions of vessels to the first administration of Ang II increased from newborn to young and middle age rats then they decreased to senescent rats. In general, second administration of Ang II elicited reduced contractions, but they also first increased and then they decreased to old age. Similarly, the AT1R mRNA level and the AT1R protein density increased from newborn to young and middle age rats then they decreased to senescent rats. The pattern of these changes correlated with functional vasomotor data. We conclude that aging (newborn to senescence) has substantial effects on Ang II-induced vasomotor responses and AT1R signaling suggesting that it is - and thus regulation of systemic blood pressure is - determined primarily by genetic programs.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Physical activity, physical function and exercise in chronic kidney disease]

NAGY Judit, APOR Péter, KISS István

[This review summarize the decreased physical activity and physical function of chronic kidney disease patients from the early stage of their renal disease; the favourable effects of exercise training on physical activity and function as well as on progression of chronic renal diseases. At the end, there is a recommendation for implementation of exercise in this renal patient population. The conclusion is that, on the basis of the evidences patients with chronic renal disease should be advised to increase their physical activity in all stages of their renal disea]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Risk categories, goals and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in Europe and in the recommendations of the AHA/ACC]

PADOS Gyula, KARÁDI István, AUDIKOVSZKY Mária, REIBER István, PARAGH György

[Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important major risk factors that can be most influenced. Its treatment is based on guidelines. In 2013 in Hungary the common guideline of 17 societies (MKKK) as well as the recommendations of EAS/ESC and those of IAS are at disposal. These recommendations have established similar risk categories and strict LDL-cholesterol goals (<1.8 mmol/l). On 12 November, 2013, in the USA after a long drawn debate the AHA/ACC - without any lipid association - issued a new cholesterol (Ch) guideline, which drasticly differs from the existing national and European recommendations. According to AHA/ACC each patient with cardiovascular disease or diabetes should be treated with statin, irrespective of the Ch value, All patients with a LDL-Ch level over 4.9 mmol/l should also be treated with statin. In primary prevention those with values between 1.8-4.9 (LDL-Ch), or 3.5-8.0 mmol/l (Ch) would also be given statin, if their risk is more than 7.5%, with the new calculator system (“Statin Benefit Groups”). These recommendations would eliminate the classic risk categories (very-high, high, moderate risk), would abolish the system of treatment goals, as well as the regular Ch test. The non-statin therapy is not supported even in combinations. A big part of the population with low Ch level would also receive statin based on the results with the calculator, meaning that in the USA the number of those treated might double. Not only the European (e.g. EAS/,ESC) but even American societies (National Lipid Association 2013-2014) (e.g. NLA) oppose to the new guideline of AHA/ACC.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Blood presssure paradoxon in very elderly patients]

SZÉKÁCS Béla, BÉKÉSI Gábor, KISS István

[The paper is warning for the necessity of very complex consideration before taking antihypertensive therapeutic decisions (indication, point or points of actiou, blood pressure target levels, dynamics of BP reduction, etc) for elderly hypertensive patients. Blood pressure reduction can mean efficient protection against cardiovascular events also among the elderly hypertensives. However in those old and very old hypertensive patients who have not only severe stiffness of their large vessels but suffer in advanced co-morbidities and integrated pathologic geriatric syndromes, the blood pressure reduction can result in sometimes even life threatening general deterioration. Antihypertensive therapeutic dilemmas of elderly caregivers appear mainly in relation to old hypertensive patients of age over 80 years. For this „very old” age period the HYVET study gave us evidence based conclusions about the cardiovascular protective usefulness of combined antihypertensive treatment resulting in BP reduction to 150 Hgmm systolic BP target levels. However a non-negligable rate of selection of the included patients in HYVET study can weaken the generalizability of the HYVET findings in this age period and the extensibility of its antihypertensive therapeutic conclusions for the entire „very old” population because this population has also a high proportion of patients with chronic progressive illnesses and general decline. Thus the elderly hypertensives’ caregiver must always carefully and critically balance between the messages of the HYVET and the nonselective observational follow up studies among elderlies showing frequently the so-called epidemiologic blood pressure/ mortality paradoxon. The paper is also trying to find potencial pathomechanical interpretations and point of actions for the epidemiologic blood pressure/mortality paradoxon found in the very old population.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study

NALBANTOGLU Mecbure, AKALIN Ali Mehmet, GUNDUZ Aysegul, KIZILTAN Meral

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic]

FALUS András, SZEKANECZ Zoltán

[The rapidly spreading SARS-CoV2 respiratory virus has evoked an epidemic with serious aftermath around the world. In addition to the health effects, the global economic damage is actually unpredictable. At the same time, the pandemic has launched a series of unprecedented collaborative scientific research, including the development of vaccines. This study summarizes up-to-date information on vaccines, immune memory, and some emerging clinical effects.]