Hungarian Immunology

[Immunological aspects in gastroenterology]

BENE László és munkatársai

OCTOBER 10, 2005

Hungarian Immunology - 2005;4(03-04)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Immunology

[Plasmacytoid dendritic cells - type I interferon producing cells]


[Dendritic cells represent a multifunctional cell population classified to myeloid (mDC) and plasmacytoid (pDC) types. Both subsets circulate in the peripheral blood and are found in lymphoid and also in non-lymphoid tissues, where they act as sensors of environmental changes. Upon activation by a wide range of stimuli they undergo morphological and functional transition and give rise to professional antigen presenting cells, which migrate to lymphoid organs. A newly identified precursor subset of human dendritic cells has recently been identified as professional type I interferon producing cells (IPC) with multiple functional activities. With their capacity of priming, instructing and regulating various pathogen- and tumor-specific immune responses, IPC/pDC act as a link between innate and adaptive immunity. The role of pDC in the pathogenesis of various diseases is well established, and these cells also emerge as novel candidates of immunomodulation.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Regulatory T cells in mixed connective tissue disease]

BARÁTH Sándor, ALEKSZA Magdolna, SZEGEDI Andrea, SIPKA Sándor, SZEGEDI Gyula, BODOLAY Edit

[INTRODUCTION - CD4+/CD25+high suppressor and IL-10 producing CD4+ regulatory T (IL-10 Treg) cells were investigated in the peripheral blood of 48 patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Seventeen patients were in active and 31 patients in inactive state. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Measurement of the number of CD4+CD25+high suppressor and IL-10 Treg cells was carried out by flow cytometry. RESULTS - The absolute number and percent of CD4+CD25+high T cells decreased in MCTD patients compared to the healthy controls. The number of CD4+CD25+high Treg cells was lower in 17 active MCTD patients than in the inactive patients. The percent and absolute number of IL-10 Treg was elevated in the peripheral blood of patients with MCTD compared to the healthy controls. Corticosteroid and immunosuppressive drugs moved the number of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+high and IL-10 Treg cells) towards the normal value. CONCLUSIONS - Our results show that the decrease in the number of CD4+CD25+high T cells could play a key role in the immunoregulatory disturbance in MCTD. Elevation in the number of IL-10 Treg cells might be a compensatory mechanism to retain the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.]

Hungarian Immunology

[6th Congress of EULAR]


Hungarian Immunology


Hungarian Immunology

[Does practice make a master?]


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Clinical Neuroscience

A rare entity of acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis which has been successfully treated with pulse steroid therapy: Does the histopathology predict the treatment response?

ÖKTEM Özdemir Ece, ÇANKAYA Şeyda, UYKUR Burak Abdullah, ERDEN Simsek Nazan, YULUG Burak

Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis is an uncommon sweating disorder characterized by loss of sweating in the absence of any neurologic, metabolic or sweat gland abnormalities. Although some possible immunological and structural mechanisms have been proposed for this rare entity, the definitive pathophysiology is still un­clear. Despite some successfully treated cases with systemic corticosteroid application, the dose and route of steroid application are controversial. Here, we present a 41-year-old man with lack of genera­lised sweating who has been successfully treated with high dose pulse intravenous prednisolone. We have discussed his clinical and histopathological findings as well as the treatment options in view of the current literature.

Clinical Neuroscience


MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Intravenous immunglobulin given in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders modulates the immune system by complex actions, including, 1. the modification of the expression and function of Fc receptors, 2. interference with the activation of the complement and the cytokine network, 3. neutralisation of antiidiotypic antibodies, 4. effects on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of the T and B cells. Controlled trials have shown that intravenous immunglobulin is effective as first-line therapy in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy. In case of steroid resistance or coexisting diabetes mellitus, intravenous immunglobulin can be the first line therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well. As an alternative therapy it can be a second-line choice in dermatomyositis, myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and stiff person syndrome. While it has a remarkably good safety record for long term administration the following side effects have been observed: headache, skin rash, thromboembolic events and renal tubular necrosis. In some disorders, the appropriate dose and frequency of infusions that maintain a satisfactory therapeutic response is well defined on the basis of data of evidencebased medicine, whereas in others it still remains to be defined. For the analysis of pharmacoeconomical aspects and the mechanism(s) of response differences in the same disease categories, further studies are necessary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The public’s attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in Hungary ]


[This research focused on the knowledge and attitude toward to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the general population of Hungary. There are only a few studies in the international literature focusing on the public’s attitude towards ECT, and no such study has been published from Hungary. Participants were reached through social media and asked to fill out a semi-structured questionnaire on internet that comprised seventeen questions. Participation in the survey was entirely voluntary and anonymous. Participants of the survey were not working in health care; their answers to the questionnaire were compared to those of health-care workers. The result showed a significant difference between healthcare workers’ and lay people’s knowledge and attitude towards ECT. Two third of lay participants have never heard about ECT. Those familiar with ECT were relatively well-informed about its certain aspects yet rejection of ECT was significantly higher in the group of lay participants than in health-care workers. Lay people’s incomplete knowledge and negative attitude towards ECT was confirmed by this survey. The dissemination of reliable information – which should be the shared responsibility of mental health professionals and the media – would be vitally important to disperse the prejudices and doubts about ECT.]

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[Vitamin D: biological and clinical effects]


[The hormone-like effects of vitamin D and its mechanism of action were extensively investigated during the last decade. The key to these effects lies in the receptor, in the interaction of the D hormone/receptor complex and in the regulator effects of vitamin D/receptor complex on other genes. The details of the vitamin D receptor structure became known during the last years. This new data shed light on a number of new aspects of vitamin D action, of which some have already gained clinical significance. Present review attempts to summarize the most recent data available in this field.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Depression in neuropsychiatric diseases]


[Depression is frequently observed together with neurological disorders. Moreover this connection is bidirectional in the case of several neurological disorders, as depression can be either a comorbide syndrome or also a risk factor of them. Neurobiological background of depression involves neuroanatomical structures, their interconnected networks, disturbances of neurotransmitters, neurohormonal, neuroimmunological and neurotrophic changes, genetic background. Disfunction of these systems also plays a role in the pathogenesis of comorbid depression of neurological disorders. Interactions and clinical aspects of biological factors involved in the pathogenesis of depression in dementias, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy are discussed further. Depression as a result of neurobiological factors responsible for both neurological and psychiatric consequencies of these disorders, are often atypical as a clinical manifestation, however chracteristic for the particular neurological disorder. Evaluation of the biological backgound and clinical features of depression in neurological disorders makes the complex neuropsychiatric approach of these disorders possible.]