Hungarian Immunology

[Congress of the American College of Rheumatology, 2005]

SZŰCS Gabriella, SZÁNTÓ Sándor

JANUARY 30, 2006

Hungarian Immunology - 2006;5(01)

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Immunology

[Regional cues and phenotypic responses during the ontogeny and postnatal development of splenic vasculatur]

BALOGH Péter

[Among structured peripheral lymphoid tissues in man and rodents, the spleen demonstrates the most extensive flexibility in functional activities, which is coupled with considerable tissue architecture adjustments during ontogeny and immune reactions. The sequential conversion of a primary lymphohemopoietic tissue into a major peripheral lymphoid organ (while participating in the post-myeloid period of primary B-lymphopoiesis and retaining the potential for myelopoiesis) is accompanied with the ordered segregation involving various non-hemopoietic components of architecture, including the endothelia of blood vessels. In this report we will survey the functional and structural aspects of heterogeneous endothelial cells lining the various splenic vascular beds, comprising the complex circulatory network of the spleen. These features will be correlated with the characteristics of those regulatory mechanisms that have recently been demonstrated to be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the endothelial divergence during splenic vascular development, including crucial transcription factors, morphogenic regulatory ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor/lymphotoxin (TNF/LT) family and others. The influence of these regulatory elements in mice appears to be highly restricted in terms of regional involvement of the vasculature, with cellular alterations of the marginal sinus representing the most frequently affected region. This complexity highlights the importance of this tissue region in both the formation of splenic vasculature and a possible source for white pulp stromal elements as well as its function as a major gateway for lymphocyte traffic.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Primer and transitory defects of interferonactivated pathways]

ERDŐS Melinda, MARÓDI László

Hungarian Immunology

[Antiphospholipid syndrome - focused on the childhood form]

KÁLOVICS Tamás, PONYI Andrea, BENSE Tamás, MÜLLER Judit, DANKÓ Katalin, FEKETE György, CONSTANTIN Tamás

[Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent thromboembolic events with concurrent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the sera. The morbidity and mortality of the syndrome is defined by the clinical manifestations: deep vein thrombosis, cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarct, pulmonary embolism, recurrent pregnancy losses and prematurity. The authors reviewed the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome focused on the childhood form.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Natural immunity]

SZEGEDI Gyula

Hungarian Immunology

[Mutations of La gene: the proper reaction of the immune system]

SEMSEI Imre

[Numerous hypotheses have emerged to solve the problem and the pathomechanism of autoimmunity so far. Different factors are suspected, from viruses to neuroendocrine elements, to be a pathogen in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Most of the theories are based on the assumption that something happens to the immune system and it leads to an autoimmune reaction against the proper self. This paper indicates that, at least in certain cases, the immune system reacts properly against the altered cells; therefore the cause of the autoimmunity lies in the other improper functioning of the body. Experimental data show that La autoantigen plays a role not only as a diagnostic marker but it may participate in the pathomechanism of certain autoimmune diseases as well. Mutations in the exon 7 of La gene have such consequences that could lead to the formation of autoimmune reactions detected.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The questions of the treatment of Parkinson’s disease]

NAGY Ferenc

[Despite the continuous development of diagnosis and treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease and the arrival of new therapeutic options in recent years the treatment and care of people with Parkinson’s disease especially in the advanced stage remains a major challenge for neurologists specialized in movement disorders. The treatment of Parkinson’s disease is adversely affected by several factors: the disease progresses relentlessly, the symptoms and rate of progression, other concomitant non-motor symptoms, and the appearance of complications caused by treatment show great heterogeneity. Based on all these factors it is difficult to develop and apply a uniform routine therapeutic guideline. This summary seeks to shed light on aspects of the treatment of Parkinson’s disease particularly in advanced-stage cases drawing on data from a professional college recommendation and the literature.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Guidelines for the treatment of traumatic brain injury - 2017]

BÜKI András, BARZÓ Pál, DEMETER Béla, KANIZSAI Péter, EZER Erzsébet, TÓTH Péter, HORVÁTH Péter, VARGA Csaba

[Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized to be the main cause of death and disability in the first four decades representing a major socio-economical problem worldwide. Recent communications revealed a particularly worrying image about the quality of care for TBI in Hungary. For any improvement a systematic approach characterized by utilization of scientific evidence based guidelines forming the basis for close monitoring of the actual care are considered a prerequisite. In Hungary the first evidence based guidelines in the field of TBI have been issued by the National Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care more than two decades ago followed by joint guidelines of the Hungarian Neurosurgical Society and the Hungarian College of Neurosurgeons. These publications were primarily based on the work of the European Brain Injury Consortium as well as guidelines issued by the Brain Trauma Foundation. Recent renewal of the latter and a need to refresh the outdated national guidelines was met by a call from regulatory authorities to issue the updated version of the Hungarian TBI-guidelines. The present review is aimed to briefly summarize the most fundamental elements of the national head injury guidelines that would hopefully be officially issued in a far more detailed format soon.]

Clinical Neuroscience

How to minimize the risk for headache? A lumbar puncture practice questionnaire study

JONATAN Salzer, RAJDA Cecilia, SUNDSTRÖM Peter, MATTIAS Vågberg, VÉCSEI László, ANDERS Svenningsson

Background - To lower the risk for post lumbar puncture (LP) headache the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) recommended using small bore atraumatic needles together with stylet reinsertion in a report from 2005. It is unclear whether these recommendations are followed or not. Objectives - To investigate the diagnostic LP preferences with respect to the AAN guidelines among neurologists by use of a short online questionnaire, and to review previously published literature on the subject. Results - A total of 284 respondents who performed diagnostic LPs completed the questionnaire. Almost half (41%) answered that they always use atraumatic needles. The most common reason (73%) for not using atraumatic needles was that these were not available. Less than half of the respondents who performed LPs had knowledge about the AAN guidelines for diagnostic LPs, and 48-76% agreed with the different recommendations therein. Five previously (1998-2015) published studies investigating LP practice among neurologists were identified. The reported frequency of atraumatic needle use (always/routinely) varied between 2 and 16%. Discussion - Atraumatic needle use was more common in this study compared with previous publications. There is still skepticism regarding some of the AAN recommendations, and needle availability appears to be the most important factor preventing atraumatic needle use. To increase the use of atraumatic needles we may perform additional studies investigating their potential benefits, and arrange training sessions for neurologists to increase their awareness and level of comfort with the atraumatic LP technique.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 infection]

FRECSKA Ede, BALLA Petra

[Initially, the studies of COVID-19 infection focused primarily on the acute and subacute somatic symptoms of limited duration, but later on with the spread of the pandemic the scope was extended to prolonged symptoms recognized as complications. Data are mounting about after-effects in circulation, respiration, coagulation, problematic outcomes in rheumatology, dermatology, ophthalmology, as well as about the acute and prolonged symptoms of the dysfunctional central nervous system. Initially, sporadic case reports, later results of population based studies and animal models were available, and the first systematic review articles were emerging during preparation of our survey. Lesions of the central nervous system may manifest themselves both in neurological symptoms and diseases or psychiatric complaints and syndromes. The scale of symptoms is broad, the pathomechanisms are not perfectly mapped thus all therapeutic approaches are in their infancy yet. Epidemiological data of neuropsychiatric complications are incomplete for the time being though they have been rapidly becoming more accurate. Conservative estimates assume tens of millions of people affected worldwide. More time is necessary to assess the persistence or improvement of the prolonged symptoms. Besides every efforts to block the spread of the virus, the utmost importance is to analyze the effects of the virus on the central nervous system and to develop effective treatment strategies. According to our current knowledge, the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric complications is multifactorial. Beyond the direct deleterious effect of the virus on neuronal and glial functions, more important is that the serious consequences of cerebrovascular dysfunction and poor oxygenation have to be taken into consideration together with extended and prolonged systemic immunological processes, which markedly harm the brain tissue, notably neurons, axons, synapses and glia cells. Based on a non-systematic lite­ra­ture review our work details these me­chanisms and addresses therapeutic options as well. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Coronavirus disease-2019 among rheumatic musculoskeletal patients – possible outcomes of infection, severe disease development and effectiveness of vaccination]

HODINKA László

[The prevalence of coronavirus infection of patients with inflammatory and rheumatic diseases does not differ significantly from the rate of the disease in the local general population. Patients treated with higher doses of corticosteroids, especially those with more severe systemic autoimmune disease, contract coronavirus infection at a higher rate. The risks of hospitalisation and the mortality rate do not differ significantly from those of the general COVID infected population. Patients treated with high-dose corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs are exceptions of this. Associated diseases that are generally threatening the COVID-19 patients (according to pre-COVID rheumatology surveys) are the same in inflammatory and non-inflammatory rheumatology conditions. Hence, the risk of severe COVID-19 outcome does not essentially depend on rheumatological conditions since the aging itself with typical cardiopulmonary and metabolic diseases are also responsible for. From the treatment armamentarium of inflammatory rheumatology/autoimmune diseases only arbitrarily dosed dexamethasone treatment seems efficacious. In specific patient groups, interleukin 6 antagonists and JAK inhibitors may also have a beneficial effect. The rheumatological and autoimmune drugs as antimetabolites, anti-cytokine immunotherapies and JAK inhibitors, do not increase the risk of COVID-19 infection since it is not necessary to stop them in infected pa­tients. The B-cell antagonist rituximab is the exception since by attenuating humoral immunity and the presence of active disease increase the risk of severe outcome in COVID-19 infected cases. COVID vaccination does not mean specific acute risk for rheumatological and autoimmune patients. The long term effect of COVID vaccination regarding the robustness and sustained immunity specifically in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases needs further studies.]

Ezt olvasta már?

OKT 28.

OKT 28.