Clinical Neuroscience

[The relevance of traumatic life events in schizophrenia spectrum disorders]


SEPTEMBER 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(09-10)

[The central goal of this manuscript was to review literature about the interconnections of traumatic life events and symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum of the last 15 years. First of all, the stress-diathesis model and the traumagenic neurodevelopmental model are shortly presented. Psychological effects of traumas and specific psychotic symptoms in connection with traumatic events are discussed. The course of the disease in patients affected by previous traumas and possible mediating factors are also addressed. Studies of both clinical and community samples are cited. It was also our aim to review literature about the neurobiological and neurocognitive processes in people affected by schizophrenia and/or traumatic life events. The role of prefrontal and medial temporal regions are explored with a special emphasis on contextual memory and hippocampal functioning. Finally, the possible effects of exploring traumatic life events on the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.]


  1. Semmelweis University, Department of Clinical Psychology, Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Mechanism of the “dark” axonal degeneration in the central nervous system]

PÁL József, GALLYAS Ferenc

[Background and purpose - In the central nervous tissue, two types of transsection-resulted axonal degeneration are generally accepted: “watery” and “dark”. The present paper deals with the assumption that the mechanism of this kind of “dark” axonal degeneration has a relationship with that of the “dark” neuronal degeneration. Methods - A minute stab wound is inflicted in the parietal cortex of the rat brain. From 1 h to 3 months postinjury, the resulted ultrastructural events in two distant regions of the corticospinal tract (internal capsule and C3 region of the corticospinal tract) are studied. Results - As a novel finding, the first morphological process of “dark” axonal degeneration was found to consists in a striking reduction of the distances between neighboring neurofilaments, which were readily distinguishable and apparently undamaged. This pattern (compacted ultrastructure) persisted for hours. By day 1 postinjury, the compacted axoplasmic elements aggregated into a homogenous and dense (“dark”) mass in which hardly any ultrastructural elements could be distinguished. Surrounded by apparently normal or mildly abnormal myelin sheat, this mass underwent a non-isotropic shrinkage during the next three months. Morphological signs of phagocytosis were insignificant. Conclusion - The ultrastructural events during the first day post-injury suggest a non-enzymatic mechanism as an alternative to the prevailing molecular-biological mechanism.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Retinal ganglion cell layer and visual function in patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia caused by common mtDNA deletion]

FARZANEH Naghizadeh, VARGA Edina Tímea, MOLNÁR Mária Judit, HOLLÓ Gábor

[Aim - Mitochondrial (mt) disorders are metabolic conditions with multiorgan involvement, which often cause neuroophtalmological symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), visual pathway and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in patients younger than 55 years of age. Methods - Five female patients (35 to 53 years of age) with mithochondrial disease were investigated. Automated threshold perimetry (Octopus G2 test), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC and GDx-ECC) and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100 OCT) were used in addition to detailed ophthalmological examination and evaluation of visually evoked potentials (VEP). Frequent mutations of the mtDNA were investigated in the patients’ blood and muscle samples. Results - PEO of various severity levels was found in all patients, using clinical tests. Genetic testing showed “common deletion” of mtDNA in all cases. For both eyes of 4 patients functional and structural ophthalmic tests had normal results. In one patient decreased visual acuity, reduced retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and prolonged L3 VEP latency time were found without optic disc damage and visual field deterioration. Conclusion - In 4 of our 5 patients with PEO due to common deletion of mtDNA retinal ganglion cells and visual function remained normal for a long period of life.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody positive myopathy]

BODOKI Levente, VINCZE Melinda, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, GRIGER Zoltán, CSONKA Tamás, DANKÓ Katalin

[The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are systemic, autoimmune diseases characterized by proximal symmetrical muscle weakness. We review the myositis-associated and myositis-specific autoantibodies, among them the anti- SRP autoantibody. Among those autoimmune myopathy cases, that are associated with autoantibodies, we can detect anti-SRP autoantibody positive myositis cases. We describe the role of signal recognition particle, also its structure and role in protein biosynthesis. We review how the necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is identified, what kind of differences are presented in relationship with the classical polymyositis cases. As we will see the anti-SRP titer correlates with the activity of the disease. We serve some examples from the literature how the disease looks in the childhood and also some rare cases from the literature. At the end of our review we present a case report to draw attention to the importance of the disease.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Great insight created by tiny holes; celebrating 40 years of brain micropunch technique]


Clinical Neuroscience

[Complex approaches to study complex trait genetics in multiple sclerosis]


[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait disorder defined by several genes and their interactions with environmental factors. A comprehensive exploration of the susceptibility variants had not been feasible until recently when new developments in biotechnology and bioinformatics made possible sequencing of the whole human genome, cataloguing of nucleotide variants and alignments of these variants in haplotypes. Earlier observations from epidemiological, candidate gene and linkage studies provided ample evidence to support a complex genetic determination of MS. New biotechnology and bioinformatics resources have been recently applied to further successful explorations of the disease. These efforts were paralleled by more careful and reliable ascertainments of disease phenotypes, collaborations among specialized centers to generate sufficient sample size and involvement of clinician-scientists capable of working both on the clinical and scientific study sides. Data obtained from the whole genome association studies (GWAS) elevated our understanding of MS genetics to a new level by identifying an extensive list of genetic determinants. Pathway analyses of MS-associated variants provided evidence to support the immune etiology of the disease. Future research will likely explore how environmental factors interact with the genome, and contribute to the abnormal immune activation and inflammation. This review summarizes the outcomes of MS genetic explorations including those of recent GWAS, and highlights practical consequences of genetic and genomic studies by pointing out as to how the derived data facilitate further elucidation of MS pathogenesis. A better understanding of disease processes is necessary for future advancements in therapeutics and the development of disease prevention strategies.]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Depression in neuropsychiatric diseases]


[Depression is frequently observed together with neurological disorders. Moreover this connection is bidirectional in the case of several neurological disorders, as depression can be either a comorbide syndrome or also a risk factor of them. Neurobiological background of depression involves neuroanatomical structures, their interconnected networks, disturbances of neurotransmitters, neurohormonal, neuroimmunological and neurotrophic changes, genetic background. Disfunction of these systems also plays a role in the pathogenesis of comorbid depression of neurological disorders. Interactions and clinical aspects of biological factors involved in the pathogenesis of depression in dementias, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy are discussed further. Depression as a result of neurobiological factors responsible for both neurological and psychiatric consequencies of these disorders, are often atypical as a clinical manifestation, however chracteristic for the particular neurological disorder. Evaluation of the biological backgound and clinical features of depression in neurological disorders makes the complex neuropsychiatric approach of these disorders possible.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]