Clinical Neuroscience

[THE GHRELIN SYSTEM: PHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BODY GROWTH AND ENERGY METABOLISM]

JACQUES Epelbaum

MARCH 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(03-04)

[This short review will summarize some recent findings on the physiopathology of the endogenous ghrelin/obestatin system by focussing on experimental studies aiming at blocking the effects of endogenous ghrelin and clinical studies investigating genotype/phenotype correlations concerning the genes encoding for ghrelin and its cognate receptor.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECIFIC SUCCINATE BINDING SITE IN BRAIN SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES]

MOLNÁR Tünde, FEKETE Kútiné Erzsébet, KARDOS Julianna, PALKOVITS Miklós

[A synaptic receptor for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) - a naturally occuring metabolite of succinic acid1 - interacting succinate has been disclosed in rat and human nucleus accumbens (NA) subcellular fractions2, but the molecular properties of this recognition site were not characterised. To address the presumed recognition site for succinate, the pharmacological profile of [3H]succinate binding to synaptic membranes prepared from rat forebrain and human NA samples has been investigated. Specific [3H]succinate binding sites in the human NA synaptic membrane fraction showed a strong pH-dependence and were characterized by binding of succinate (IC50,SUCC=2.9±0.6 µM), GHB (IC50,GHB=2.1±1.3 µM) and gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (IC50,CBX=7.1±5.8 µM). A similar [3H]succinate binding profile was found in rat forebrain synaptic membrane fractions. We conclude the existence of a pHo-dependent synaptic membrane binding site for the intermediary metabolite succinate. The pharmacological properties of this recognition site may possibly suggest the existence of a hemichannel-like target protein for succinate.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[In memoriam Mariann Fodor]

Clinical Neuroscience

[PROJECTIONS OF VIP/PHI NEURONS OF THE INTERSTITIAL NUCLEUS OF CAJAL IN THE RAT]

FODOR Mariann, WILLIAM Rostène, ANNE Berod, BENCZE Viktória, PALKOVITS Miklós

[Neurons expressing VIP/PHI precursor mRNA have been localized in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Unilateral surgical cut through the medial forebrain bundle failed to influence VIP/PHI mRNA expression in the Cajal nucleus while brainstem hemisection or unilateral transection of the medial longitudinal fascicle reduced it markedly, ipsilateral to the knife cuts. Thus, in contrast to forebrain projecting VIP neurons in the rostral periaqueductal gray, VIP/PHI neurons in the Cajal nucleus project downwards, to the lower brainstem.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[SYNAPTIC CONNECTIONS OF GLUTAMATERGIC NERVE FIBRES IN THE RAT SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS]

KISS József, CSÁKI Ágnes, CSABA Zsolt, HALÁSZ Béla

[Background and purpose - The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus functioning as the principal circadian pacemaker in mammals, has a rich glutamatergic innervation. Nothing is known about the terminations of the glutamatergic fibres. The aim of the present investigations was to study the relationship between glutamatergic axon terminals and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), GABA and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the cell group. Methods - Double label immunocytochemistry was used and the brain sections were examined under the electron microscope. Vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 was applied as marker of the glutamatergic elements. Results - Glutamatergic fibers were detected in synaptic contact with GABAergic, VIP- and AVP-positive neurons forming asymmetric type of synapses. Conclusion - The findings are the first data on the synaptic contacts of glutamatergic axon terminals with neurochemically identified neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CENTRAL ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IN DEHYDRATION]

BAHNER Udo, GEIGER Helmut, PALKOVITS Miklós, LENKEI Zsolt, LUFT C. Friedrich, HEIDLAND August

[To test the effect of dehydration on brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in areas important to salt appetite, water balance and cardiovascular regulation, we subjected rats to dehydration and rehydration and measured ANP concentration in 18 brain areas, as well as all relevant peripheral parameters. Water deprivation decreased body weight, blood pressure, urine volume, and plasma ANP, while it increased urine and plasma osmolality, angiotensin II, and vasopressin. ANP greatly increased in 17 and 18 brain areas (all cut cerebral cortex) by 24 h. Rehydration for 12 h corrected all changes evoked by dehydration, including elevated ANP levels in brain. We conclude that chronic dehydration results in increased ANP in brain areas important to salt appetite and water balance. These results support a role for ANP as a neuroregulatory substance that participates in salt and water balance.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association of body composition and mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis and on waitlist and after kidney transplantation]

UJSZÁSZI Ákos, KALANTAR-ZADEH Kamyar, MOLNÁR Miklós Zsolt

[Overweight [body mass index (BMI) = 25-30 kg/m2] and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) are epidemic in both developed and developing countries. Obesity has been recognized as risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and poor survival. Almost 2/3 of maintenance hemodialysis patients die within five years of commencing dialysis treatment. Although patients on the waitlist having less severe comorbidities than their non-listed counterparts, the death rate remains high while it can take years for an organ donation. In patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis an “obesity paradox” has been consistently reported, i.e., a high BMI is incrementally associated with better survival. Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in patients at the time of kidney transplantation. Indeed, most transplant centers in US may suspend wait-listing of obese patients with a BMI above 30 or 35 kg/m2 and refer them for weight reduction procedures such as bariatric surgery as a contingency for the transplant surgery. The effect of pre- and post-transplant obesity in kidney transplanted patients on long-term graft and patient survival has not been well established. We have reviewed and summarized salient recent data pertaining to body composition and clinical outcomes about the association of survival and body composition in transplant-waitlisted dialysis patients and kidney transplanted recipients. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The public catering reform in social care institutions from the care professionals point of view]

SZABÓNÉ POLGÁR Anna Mária

[In the European Union, the prevalence of excess weight and obesity have dramatically increased. This increase is associated with inappropriate nutrition and the lack of physical exercise, which in turn lead to an increase of chronic ill health. Consequently, this will adversely affect the quality of life, as well as the life expectancy in the long run. The health of the Hungarian population is poorer than that of other European nations. Less life years are lost in Western European countries. Poor diet plays a pivotal role among other lifestyle associated risk factors affecting health. In light of the above evidence, actions plans and programmes have been designed, as well as ministerial decrees were issued in order to sustain and improve the health of the population. There is evidence that a strong relationship exists between diet and health. Excessive dietary intake of salt increases the risk of high blood pressure. Furthermore, excessive intake of salt, carbohydrates and fat can lead to cardiovascular and malignant diseases, as well as diabetes. Obesity can be prevented by a healthy diet. However, the role of supportive environment cannot be overemphasised when it comes to the introduction of a new, healthier diet and lifestyle.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Eating behaviors among the participants of an inpatient weight loss treatment

CZEGLÉDI Edit

Background and purpose - Eating behaviors play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of excess weight. The aim of the study was to explore the predictors and changes in eating behaviors among overweight and obese patients. Methods - The sample of the 6-month prospective survey consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment program in the Lipidological Department of the Szent Imre Hospital (baseline: N=339, 19% men; follow-up: N=175, 16% men). The mean age was 50.2 years (SD=13.47), the mean BMI was 38.6 (SD=7.58) at baseline. Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-Items, CES-D Depression Scale. Results - According to the results of Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes analysis, older age predicted greater cognitive restraint (b=0.12, p=0.047). Women were more prone to emotional eating than men (b=0.21, p<0.001). Higher levels of education predicted greater uncontrolled eating (b=0.16, p=0.007) and emotional eating (b=0.12, p=0.039). Depression showed a positive relationship with emotional eating (b=0.19, p=0.001), and mediated the relationship between gender and emotional eating (b=0.04, p=0.009), and BMI and emotional eating (b=0.03, p=0.015). Those whose weight loss was at least 5% showed a greater improvement in the eating behaviors than those whose weight loss was below 5% (cognitive restraint: t(168)=-4.765, p<0.001, uncontrolled eating: t(168)=-2.442, p=0.016, and emotional eating: Z=-2.011, p=0.044). Conclusions - Results reveal certain determinants of eating behaviors that enhance or obstruct successful long term weight loss and highlight the role of eating behavior changes in weight loss. These mark intervention points for the optimization of results achievable by weight loss treatments.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[OBESITY: THE EPIDEMIC OF OUR TIMES]

SIDÓ Zoltán

[The influence of changes in lifestyle on treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases are the objects of surveys in many places of the world. On the basis of clinical trials one can underline that the Mediterranean diet, with enhanced physical activity, changing lifestyle, cessation of smoking, reducing alcohol intake, maintaining normal weight can decrease dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis and prevent cardiovascular diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Introducing a new, personalized multistep cognitive behavioral therapy for obesity]

CZEGLÉDI Edit

[Two thirds of Hungary’s adult population live with excess weight. Obesity itself is a chronic disease that is a risk factor for many other chronic diseases, and therefore adequate treatment is of public health impor­tance. Although behavioral therapy is one of the evidence-based approaches to treating obesity, its long-term effectiveness is not well-established. That is why intensive work has been done over the past decades to furth­er develop behavioral therapy. A recent example of this is a multi-step treatment program that can be implemented in a number of settings of the health care system regardless of the excess weight and the presence of comorbid conditions of obesity. This treatment program is based on classical behavioral treatments and new cognitive-behavioral treatments of obesity and, in addition to the acquisition of long-term lifestyle-changing skills, contributes to the treatment of obesity through the development of a mind-set for long-term weight control. The purpose of this study is to present the program.]