Clinical Neuroscience

[Reflexometric tests adapted for fatigue tests device]

LIPÁK János1

OCTOBER 01, 1961

Clinical Neuroscience - 1961;14(10)

[We have constructed a simple and inexpensive device for the accurate recording of reflex time, which is highly suitable for various types of fatigue tests (work, sports, education, neurosis). ]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Debreceni Orvostudományi Egyetem Ideg- és Elmegyógyászati Klinika

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Vasomotor function tests in sclerosis in multiple sclerosis ]

HUSZÁK István, SZILÁRD János, BOGDÁN Ernő

[1. The biogenic amines acting on the circulatory system : noradrenaline, histamine and acetylcholine do not cause greater or lesser changes in blood pressure in the first phase of their action compared to controls. 2. The counter-regulatory actions of these substances are exaggerated and more persistent in Sm compared to controls. 3. The onset of homeostasis is delayed, especially in the "thrust" phase of Sm. 4. In contrast to histamine, an opposite reaction to Sm is observed in several cases. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Results of temporal epilepsy surgery in cases of deep-seated foci]

FÉNYES István, ZOLTÁN László, FÉNYES György

[We evaluated the surgical outcomes of 34 patients with temporal epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy with removal of deep anatomical structures. Cases of traumatic etiology with well-circumscribed macro- or evaluable micro-anatomical ablation were excluded from our data. EEG studies revealed deep temporal epileptogenic foci in the vast majority of cases. Catamnestic processing of the postoperative period showed that the surgical outcome of our cases was "good" in 56% and "poor" in 44%. The number of "unchanged" cases did not exceed 20%. Preoperative EEG is not a reliable indicator of surgical prognosis: many of our patients with EEG abnormalities considered unfavourable improved greatly as a result of surgery and vice versa. The good surgical outcomes in our cases are not always faithfully reflected by postoperative EEG curves; the same can be said about our poor surgical outcomes. From this we can conclude that an EEG curve with a poor prognosis is not necessarily a contraindication for performing temporal epilepsy surgery. In a considerable percentage of such cases we have achieved good or even excellent results. However, in our opinion, even in cases of poor outcome, it was worthwhile to perform the surgery because epilepsy is a disease that usually places a very high burden on the patient and his environment, and because its mortality is so low that the patient is not put at serious risk. Most of the EEG recordings are performed by Prof. Ferenc Obál, a smaller part and their scientific processing is the work of one of us (F. I. ). The published photograms were made by Marianne Horváth. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase determinations in infants and children neurological diseases]

SZÁSZ Gábor

[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) activity determinations were performed in 12 cases of acute meningitis and 2 cases of meningitis and encephalitis with remission of pathological neurological symptoms, 42 in total. In all cases, elevated activity was detected in CSF at the beginning of the acute period. The enzyme activity decreased rapidly after treatment in a proportion of cases. In cerebral inflammation of long duration, LGOT values did not show a clear downward trend, and in 2 cases with neurological damage, we found elevated enzyme activity at later follow-up. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Report on the II Czechoslovak Psychiatric Conference Congress ]

FARAGÓ István, KARDOS György, SIMKÓ Alfréd

[The author reports on the II Czechoslovak Congress of Psychiatry. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study

NALBANTOGLU Mecbure, AKALIN Ali Mehmet, GUNDUZ Aysegul, KIZILTAN Meral

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]

ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Use of the ankle-brachial index in occupational healthcare]

SZOBOTA Lívia, HIRDI Henriett Éva

[Elevated risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events is associated with high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Nurses working in occupational healthcare are ideally situated to identify individuals with undiagnosed PAD. The aim of the study: This study aimed to demonstrate that the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a tool to be used by occupational health nurses in prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A cross-sectional study was carried out with patients (N=638) from an occupational healthcare setting in 2021. The ABI was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure device. The measurements were analysed with the help of SPSS 22.0; descriptive statistics were calculated. A total of 638 patients were included. Mean age of the population studied was 46.5 ± 8.2 years; 38.4% were men and 61.6% were women. Mean ABI were 1.08 in right legs, 1.06 in left legs. Only 11 subjects (1.72%) had an ABI < 0.90. Occupational health nurses are able to identify key factors related to PAD, including use of the ABI, and to identify individuals with the disease. The determination of ABI using an oscillometric blood pressure device is feasible and easy to implement in occupational healthcare.]