Clinical Neuroscience

[Recommendation for treatment options in advanced Parkinson's disease]

ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, DIBÓ György, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KOVÁCS Norbert, KOVÁCS Tibor, TAKÁTS Annamária, GERTRÚD Tamás, VARANNAI Lajos

NOVEMBER 30, 2016

Clinical Neuroscience - 2016;69(11-12)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.69.0367

[The treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease is challenging for both physicians and caregivers. The device-aided therapies need expertise and dedicated hospital centers. In this summary we have concluded the available data and recommendation for the treatment options in advanced Parkinson’s disease and adopt them to the daily care in Hungary. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

How to minimize the risk for headache? A lumbar puncture practice questionnaire study

JONATAN Salzer, RAJDA Cecilia, SUNDSTRÖM Peter, MATTIAS Vågberg, VÉCSEI László, ANDERS Svenningsson

Background - To lower the risk for post lumbar puncture (LP) headache the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) recommended using small bore atraumatic needles together with stylet reinsertion in a report from 2005. It is unclear whether these recommendations are followed or not. Objectives - To investigate the diagnostic LP preferences with respect to the AAN guidelines among neurologists by use of a short online questionnaire, and to review previously published literature on the subject. Results - A total of 284 respondents who performed diagnostic LPs completed the questionnaire. Almost half (41%) answered that they always use atraumatic needles. The most common reason (73%) for not using atraumatic needles was that these were not available. Less than half of the respondents who performed LPs had knowledge about the AAN guidelines for diagnostic LPs, and 48-76% agreed with the different recommendations therein. Five previously (1998-2015) published studies investigating LP practice among neurologists were identified. The reported frequency of atraumatic needle use (always/routinely) varied between 2 and 16%. Discussion - Atraumatic needle use was more common in this study compared with previous publications. There is still skepticism regarding some of the AAN recommendations, and needle availability appears to be the most important factor preventing atraumatic needle use. To increase the use of atraumatic needles we may perform additional studies investigating their potential benefits, and arrange training sessions for neurologists to increase their awareness and level of comfort with the atraumatic LP technique.

Clinical Neuroscience

Could red cell distribution width and mean platelet volume be a predictor for lumbar disc hernias?

DAGISTAN Yasar, DAGISTAN Emine, GEZICI Riza Ali, HALICIOGLU Sıdıka, AKAR Semih, ÖZKAN Nezih, AKTAS Gulali

Background - Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) causes major disabilities worldwide. Several studies in the literature had reported the correlation between radiculopathy and inflammatory markers. Mean platelet volume (MPV), red cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio are parameters of hemogram which have been found to be associated with inflammatory conditions. Purpose - Since inflammation has an important role in lumbar disc hernias, and RDW, MPV and N/L ratio are also known to be in correlation with inflammation, we have investigated these parameters of the patients with lumbar disc hernias and compared them with the results of the healthy subjects. Methods - Our study group was composed of patients with lumbar disc hernia, whereas the control group was consisted of healthy volunteers whom visited our outpatient clinics for a routine check-up. Patient characteristics and hemogram parameters of the study cohort were obtained from computerized database system of our institution. SPSS software (SPSS 15.0 for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the analysis. Results - There was no significant difference between study and control groups in terms of WBC, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, neu\lym ratio, Hb, Htc, MCV, and PLT levels (all p>0.05). RDW was significantly increased in study group [15.6 (12.3-22.5)] when compared to control group [14.5(11.9-16.3)] (p=0.004). And MPV in the study group [9.25 (6.38-14.5)] was also significantly increased in comparison to the control subjects [8.8 (6-10.1)] (p=0.013). Discussion - In this retrospective study, we found that, RDW and MPV values in hemograms were increased in patients with lumbar disc herniation when compared to the control group. Conclusions - We suggest that, elevated RDW and MPV may help physicians in decision taking to order radiological imagings in patients with symptoms which can be associated with possible LDH diagnosis. However, for the sake of precision, prospective studies with larger populations are needed.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Ketamine administration in case of severe, therapy resistant depressed patient, case report]

MORVAI Szabolcs, NAGY Attila István, BÁLINT-SZÖLLŐSI Adrienn, MÓRÉ E Csaba, BERECZ Roland, FRECSKA Ede

[Objective - In our case report we present the treatment of a female patient suffering from therapy resistant depression. This procedure is not in practice in Hungary at present, the aim of our work to reproduce the findigs of international studies in domestic circumstances. Matter - Major depression is a common, chronic and severe mental disorder, with 16.2% lifetime prevalence. Many international randomized, placebo controlled trials found administration of ketamine infusion effective in depressed patients. Methods - Since ketamine is an anesthetic agent, its administration was performed in the post-operative monitoring room of our hospital operating-room, supervised by an anesthesiologist. According to formerly published data, a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight was administered intravenously in 40 minutes by perfusor. The drug was administered in a same manner fifteen days later. Subject - The patient was admitted to our inpatient ward with severe depression. During two months of combined antidepressant therapy her condition has not improved significantly. Approval for off label drug indication was granted with urgency by the National Institute of Quality and Organizational Development in Healthcare and Medicines. Results - During the two treatments the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items rating scale score was reduced to 8 from the baseline 28, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score was reduced to 6 from 25, Beck Depression Inventory was reduced to 9 from 20. Upon administration of the drug no severe adverse event was detected, the mild dissociative state related to ketamine was ceased in a short period of time. Discussion - With administration of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine the authors managed to achieve rapid improvement in a therapy resistant depressed patient, without permanent side effects. Our future plan is to repeat the use of the drug within a double-blind, placebo controlled trial in order to prove its efficacy in hospital settings. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Behavioral and cognitive profile of corpus callosum agenesia - Review]

LÁBADI Beatrix, BEKE Anna Mária

[Introduction - Agenesis of corpus callosum is a relatively frequent congenital cerebral malformation including dysplasia, total or partial absence of corpus callosum. The agenesis of corpus callosum can be occured in isolated form without accompanying somatic or central nervous system abnormalities and it can be associated with other central nervus system malformations. The behavioral and cognitive outcome is more favorable for patients with isolated agenesis of corpus callous than syndromic form of corpus callosum. The aim of this study is to review recent research on behavioral and social-cognitive functions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum. Developmental delay is common especially in higher-order cognitive and social functions. Methods - An internet database search was performed to identify publications on the subject. Results - Fifty-five publications in English corresponded to the criteria. These studies reported deficits in language, social cognition and emotions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum which is known as primary corpus callous syndrome. Discussion - The results indicate that individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum have deficiency in social-cognitive domain (recognition of emotions, weakness in paralinguistic aspects of language and mentalizing abilities). The impaired social cognition can be manifested in behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Patient characteristics and the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome

GUZEY ARAS Yesim, TANIK Osman, DOGAN GÜNGEN Belma, KOTAN Dilcan

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis- and treatment-related characteristics in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and to evaluate the effects of early intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment on disability, mortality and prognosis. Materials and methods - Adult patients who were diagnosed with GBS in our clinic between January 2000 and January 2014 were retrospectively scanned. While the patients undergoing IVIg treatment were included in the study, the other neuropathic diseases were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups based on the administration time of the IVIg treatment; Group 1 (<7 days) and Group 2 (≥ 7 days) Group 1 consisted of patients undergoing IVIg treatment within 7 days after presentation of symptoms and Group 2 consisted of patients undergoing IVIg treatment on and after 7th day following presentation of symptoms. The scores from Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) on admission and one month laterwere recorded in all patients in order to evaluate the disability and prognosis in terms of demographic and clinical laboratory characteristics. Results - In this study, 49 GBS patients were included (31 patients in Group 1 and 18 patients in Group 2). Demyelinating form of GBS was determined in 22 (44.8%) patients.). While there was no difference between both groups (p: 0.288, p: 0.762, p: 0.693 respectively) in terms of intensive care and rehabilitation requirement and progression, only 2 patients in Group 1 died. While HFGS mean score on admission in all the patient groups was 3.27±0.974, their HFGS mean score at month 1 was 2.53±1.226. There was no difference between the groups in terms of HFGS mean scores on admission and at month 1. Within each groups, there was a significant improvement between initial (on admission) HFGS scores and HFGS scores acquired at month 1. Conclusion - In this study, demyelinating form was more frequent than axonal form. A total of 2 g/kg dose of IVIg treatment administered for 5 days as a standard in GBS patients ensured a significant improvement on both disability and early and late administration and early administration of the treatment does not lead to any difference in intensive care unit and rehabilitation requirements.

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Vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses in Parkinson’s disease

CICEKLI Esen, TITIZ Pinar Ayse, TITIZ Ali, OZTEKIN Nese, MUJDECI Banu

Background - Our objectives were to determine the differences in the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses in patients diagnosed with early staged idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared to the normal population and evaluate the vestibular system disorder causing balance-posture disorders. Second aim of this study was to investigate caloric test responses particularly in early staged PD compared to normal popu­lation. Material and methods - Thirty patients (14 females and 16 males; mean age, 60.6 ± 13.1 years) diagnosed with idiopathic PD and 28 healthy subjects (20 males and 8 females; mean age, 59.1 ± 6.4 years) were included. The patient and control groups were subdivided according to their age, gender and the patient group was subdivided according to onset time of the Parkinson symptoms, Hoehn-Yahr staging. The subgroups were compared for VEMP and caloric test responses. Results - There were no significant differences between the study and control groups for right and left VEMP measurements. Patients over 60 years and under 60 years did not show significant differences in terms of right and left mean VEMP measurements. However, P1 amplitude was significantly lower in patients over 60 years old (P = .004). Gender, disease duration, BERG balance scale and Hoehn-Yahr stage had no effect on the VEMP amplitudes. There was no significant correlation with the side of Parkinsonian symptoms to the side of canal paresis (P = .566) and the side on which no VEMP response was obtained in caloric test. Conclusion - VEMP responses were not different between PD and healthy subjects. VEMP P1 amplitude was decreased with age in PD group. Canal paresis and symptoms side were not statistically correlated in caloric test.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Earlier and more efficiently: the role of deep brain stimulation for parkinson’s disease preserving the working capabilities]

DELI Gabriella, BALÁS István, KOMOLY Sámuel, DÓCZI Tamás, JANSZKY József, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, NAGY Ferenc, BOSNYÁK Edit, KOVÁCS Norbert

[Background – The recently published “EarlyStim” study demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with early fluctuations is superior to the optimal pharmacological treatment in improving the quality of life and motor symptoms, and preserving sociocultural position. Our retrospective investigation aimed to evaluate if DBS therapy was able to preserve the working capabilities of our patients. Methods – We reviewed the data of 39 young (<60 years-old) PD patients who underwent subthalamic DBS implantation at University of Pécs and had at least two years follow-up. Patients were categorized into two groups based on their working capabilities: Patients with active job (“Job+” group, n=15) and retired patients (without active job, “Job-” group, n=24). Severity of motor symptoms (UPDRS part 3), quality of life (EQ-5D) and presence of active job were evaluated one and two years after the operation. Results – As far as the severity of motor symptoms were concerned, similar (approximately 50%) improvement was achieved in both groups. However, the postoperative quality of life was significantly better in the Job+ group. Majority (12/15, 80%) of Job+ group members were able to preserve their job two years after the operation. However, only a minimal portion (1/24, 4.2%) of the Job- group members was able to return to the world of active employees (p<0.01, McNemar test). Conclusion – Although our retrospective study has several limitations, our results fit well with the conclusions of “EarlyStim” study. Both of them suggest that with optimal timing of DBS implantation we may preserve the working capabilities of our patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Genetics and present therapy options in Parkinson’s disease: a review]

BEREZNAI Benjámin, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[In the past years, six monogenic forms of Parkinson disease have clearly been associated with this movement disorder. The most frequent forms are LRRK2- and Parkin-associated Parkinson disease. Currently, a genetic diagnosis does not change the therapy, the genes involved in genetic Parkinson disease help to understand the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of Parkinson disease. Beside the overview of the molecular-genetic basis, we give a review about genetic testing, pharmacological and other multidisciplinary treatment options.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Caregiver burden and quality of life in early stages of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease

YUKSEL Burcu, AK Dogan Pelin, SEN Aysu, SARIAHMETOGLU Hande, USLU Celiker Sibel, ATAKLI Dilek

Objectives - The aim of this study was to assess the impact of early stage of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) on caregiver burden with disease severity, duration, disability and psychiatric symptoms. Methods - 30 IPD patient (15 female, 15 male) - caregiver (18 female, 12 male) pairs participated in the study. Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) scale was used to provide the assessment of disease progression and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used for assessing disability and impairment. Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory (ZCBI) was used to ascertain the distress experienced by caregivers. Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) was performed on both patient and caregiver groups to evaluate anxiety and depression. Depressive symptoms of both groups were also measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients’ psychotic symptoms were assessed using the part 1- mentation, behavior and mood section of UPDRS. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate dementia symptoms and Short Form-36 (SF-36) was also used to assess quality of life. Results - We found significant correlation between caregiver burden with disease severity and duration. There was a significant difference between high UPDRS scores and the caregiver’s will for placing her/his patient in a long-term institution. Patients who had depression risk according to BDI had also high UPDRS scores. Patients with off period had higher UPDRS scores and lower SF-36 subdomains of general health, physical functioning, emotional role and social functioning. Conclusion - IPD is a chronic, progressive neuro- degenerative disease and comprises substantial burden on patients, families of patients and caregivers. The disease duration and disability have a remarkable impact on caregiver burden. For the good quality of caregiving, protective therapies should be recommended for caregivers if needed.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Validation of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS: Why do we need a new Parkinson scale?]

HORVÁTH Krisztina, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ÁCS Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, DELI Gabriella, PÁL Endre, KÉSMÁRKI Ildikó, HORVÁTH A. Réka, TAKÁCS Katalin, KOMOLY Sámuel, BOKOR Magdolna, RIGÓ Eszter, LAJTOS Júlia, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DIBÓ György, VÉCSEI László, TAKÁTS Annamária, TÓTH Adrián, IMRE Piroska, NAGY Ferenc, HERCEG Mihály, HIDASI Eszter, KOVÁCS Norbert

[Background - The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been published in 2008 as the successor of the original UPDRS. The MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for the development of official non- English translations consisting of four steps: translation/back-translation, cognitive pretesting, large field testing, and clinimetric analysis. The aim of this paper was to introduce the new MDS-UPDRS and its validation process into Hungarian. Methods - Two independent groups of neurologists translated the text of the MDS-UPDRS into Hungarian and subsequently back-translated into English. After the review of the back-translated English version by the MDS-UPDRS translation administration team, cognitive pretesting was conducted with ten patients. Based on the results of the initial cognitive pretesting, another round was conducted. For the large field testing phase, the Hungarian official working draft version of MDS-UPDRS was tested with 357 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Hungarian Official Draft Version. To become an official translation, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 compared to the English-language version. Results - For all four parts of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI was ≥0.94. Conclusion - The overall factor structure of the Hungarian version was consistent with that of the English version based on the high CFIs for all the four parts of the MDSUPDRS in the CFA; therefore, this version was designated as the ‘OFFICIAL HUNGARIAN VERSION OF THE MDSUPDRS.’]