Clinical Neuroscience

[Our experience with Parkazine and its combination with other antiparkinsonian medicines]

DOBI Sándor1

AUGUST 01, 1963

Clinical Neuroscience - 1963;16(08)

[Following Klimes' positive experience with outpatients, we have also had positive experience with Parkazine in hospital, which is mostly more severe. We have experienced a pronounced antitremor effect and we have experienced what was definitely an advantage over other previous drugs, that it also has a significant antitremor effect. This anti-tremor effect, which is all the shorter the patient's anamnesis, is the main advantage of Parkazine and justifies its use in all cases of Parkinson's syndrome. In addition to its beneficial effects on tremor and rigor, it also significantly improves akinesia through rigor reduction, without affecting primary motor impulsion. The latter should be classified as psychic symptoms, which are not affected by parkazine. Nevertheless, it does have a significant secondary psychic effect, which can be attributed to an improvement in the ability of helpless tremor patients to move and a reduction in tremor, by which the emotional afficiability of patients is also reduced. To influence the autonomic phenomena, which are a sub-symptom of Parkinson's syndrome and which greatly impair social integration, the drug can be preferably combined with belladonna derivatives, in our experience most notably Bellafit. This implies, accepting the different localisation mechanisms of the main components of PD, that Parkazine targets the areas involved in the generation of PD tremor and rigorous tonicity. ]


  1. Gyulai Megyei Kórház Ideg-Elmeosztálya



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Cholinesterase activity of subdural haematomas]


[The authors report on cholinesterase enzyme activity assays of operated subdural and intracerebral haematoma specimens. By determining the cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity of the fluid obtained at surgery, they attempted to draw parallels between enzyme activity and the time of haematoma persistence. The results showed that the fluid content of the capsular haematoma is not stable from the time of formation. The variation in the activity of the two enzymes studied suggests the possibility that the fluid content is continuously replenished, presumably by transudation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Analysis of symptomatic epipharyngeal tumour cases with trigeminal neuralgia]


[After describing the cases of three patients with epipharyngeal tumours, I will summarise the symptomatology of epipharyngeal tumours, emphasising the so-called latent phase, when only the elevation of pain to organic status and the correct evaluation of the otological complaints can help to establish an early diagnosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Spontaneous intracerebral haematomas surgical treatment]


[The authors report the results of surgical treatment of 28 spontaneous intracerebral haematomas. In 12 cases, the cause of the haemorrhage was hypertonic arteriosclerosis based on clinical investigations; in 2 juvenile patients the haemorrhage was due to a microangioma undetectable by angiography, while in the other cases the aetiology was unknown. The cases were classified into 3 groups according to onset and course : 1. pseudotumoral or chronic form, 2. apoplectiform onset and 3. subarachnoid haemorrhage. The distribution of haematomas according to localisation was as follows: frontal 5, temporal 8, capsular 5, trigonal 9, cerebellar 1. Of the 28 patients, 5 died (18% surgical mortality). Of the 10 patients operated on within two weeks, 4 died, and of the 18 operated on later, 1 died. Despite the strikingly better results of late surgery, categorical avoidance of early intervention is not possible, but requires individual assessment of the surgical indicatio, especially in acute fasciitis. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Nervous system of engine builders working on assembly lines]

BÁLINT István, HÓDOS Tibor

[By means of modern technology and organization of work, the effect of stress on the nervous system caused by factors outside the objective nature of the work process can be substantially reduced in the case of production on the production line. The success of the measures aimed at reducing the strain on the nervous system of people working on the production line can only be increased if the stress situation resulting from the nature of the work process is changed. Since the repetitive and uniform manipulations during the bound work process primarily require an adaptation of the individual tempo and rhythm within narrow limits, the nervous system load on the working person is reflected in the mental performance of the adaptation at the given moment of time. The investigations concerning time perception have shown the necessity of improving the working conditions in two areas with regard to the further reduction of the nervous system load: 1. in order to further limit monotony, the linking of the tasks on the production line must be regulated in a new way, 2. in order to facilitate time adaptation, more micro-breaks must be inserted between the individual tasks on the production line than before.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]