Clinical Neuroscience

Nouvelles données concernant la „dysproteinemie” dans la pathogénèse de certaines maladies du groupe des collage noses constatées dans l'électrophorèse sur agar du serum sanguin

S. Bojinov, B. Iordanov, V. Dachin

MARCH 01, 1961

Clinical Neuroscience - 1961;14(03)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Occipital alexia and polyopia ]

SIMONYI Gusztáv

[Description of one case each of polyopia with right- and left-sided occipital focus. Overview of pure alexia cases. Relationships between gaze disorders and positive afterimages are sought. Alexia represents an asymbolia, i.e., it is a purely optic-gnostic disorder. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Light effect-induced reflex epilepsy (Epilepsy photogenica and its borderlands) ]

WALSA Róbert

[1. Ph. e. is a distinct form of reflex epilepsy in which rhythmically repetitive or unexpected light effects regularly provoke clinical and EEG phenomena characteristic of epilepsy. 2. From patient-specific provoking light effects to stimulus-independent seizure forms to other (mainly central) seizure types and so-called stimulus-sensitive "myoclonus", transient forms occur. 3. Ph. e. is characterised by focal or initially generalised epileptiform EEG phenomena in response to specific light effects in each patient, but the clinical paroxysm is often distorted by vegetative symptoms, functional-appearing behavioural disturbances, myoclonus, etc. 4. Ph. e. may be due to defects in inhibitory mechanisms. It can be assumed that in central seizures, light stimuli cause a dysfunction of the mesencephalic reticularis of the tegmentum : the activity that centrifugally selects and centrally controls and processes the sensitive impulses is reduced or eliminated. In a cortical type seizure, local inhibition of the visual cortex leads to blurring. Author 5 reports observations on a case of 22 ph. e.-s 4 fronto-polar photo-myoclonias. 6. Atypical seizure phenomena and frequent lack of subjective photosensitivity often make it difficult to recognize the true nature of the disease, which not only makes it impossible to adjust appropriate treatment, but also makes it impossible to take preventive measures in patients exposed to sudden light effects (e.g. in public traffic, etc.). It is therefore appropriate to exclude or confirm the pathology of ph. e. in a wide variety of paroxysmal conditions by using intermittent light stimuli during EEG examination. ]

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[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

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[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Tracing trace elements in mental functions]

JANKA Zoltán

[Trace elements are found in the living organism in small (trace) amounts and are mainly essential for living functions. Essential trace elements are in humans the chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), iodine (I), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and questionably the boron (B) and vanadium (V). According to the biopsychosocial concept, mental functions have biological underpinnings, therefore the impairment of certain neurochemical processes due to shortage of trace elements may have mental consequences. Scientific investigations indicate the putative role of trace element deficiency in psychiatric disorders such in depression (Zn, Cr, Se, Fe, Co, I), premenstrual dysphoria (Cr), schizophrenia (Zn, Se), cognitive deterioration/de­mentia (B, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, V), mental retardation (I, Mo, Cu), binge-eating (Cr), autism (Zn, Mn, Cu, Co) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Fe). At the same time, the excess quantity (chronic exposure, genetic error) of certain trace elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Cr, Fe, V) can also lead to mental disturbances (depression, anxiety, psychosis, cognitive dysfunction, insomnia). Lithium (Li), being efficacious in the treatment of bipolar mood disorder, is not declared officially as a trace element. Due to nutrition (drinking water, food) the serum Li level is about a thousand times less than that used in therapy. However, Li level in the red cells is lower as the membrane sodium-Li countertransport results in a Li efflux. Nevertheless, the possibility that Li is a trace element has emerged as studies indicate its potential efficacy in such a low concentration, since certain geographic regions show an inverse correlation between the Li level of drinking water and the suicide rate in that area. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment and new evidences in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder ]

ILLÉS Zsolt

[Treatment and new evidences in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder Illés Zs, MD, PhD Ideggyogy Sz 2021;74(9–10):309–321. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is associated with antibodies against AQP4 in about 80% of the cases. In about one-fourth of seronegative cases, antibodies against the MOG protein are present in the serum (MOG-antibody associated disease, MOGAD). This article discusses off-label azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of NMOSD and reviews the evidence-based clinical aspects of B/plasma cell depletion, antagonization of IL-6 signaling and blocking the complement pathway. The review also summarizes basic aspects of NMOSD pregnancy focusing on treatment, and the different therapeutic approach in MOGAD. In the recent two years, phase 3 clinical trials provided class I evidence for the efficacy and safety of rituximab (anti-CD20), inebilizumab (anti-CD19), tocilizumab (anti-IL6R), satralizumab (anti-IL6R), and eculizumab (anti-C5) in combination with other immunosuppressants or in monotherapy. The treatment approach in MOGAD is complicated by the monophasic course in about half of the cases and by the potential disappearance of MOG antibody. The necessity of maintenance treatment in MOGAD should be decided after tapered oral steroid. Immunosuppression is recommended in NMOSD during pregnancy and lactation, and this should be considered for optimal selection of treatment in fertile female patients. The new monoclonal antibodies broadened treatment options NMOSD, and the treatment strategy of MOGAD has become more straightforward.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Uric acid: The role in the pathophysiology and the prediction in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: A Turkish-based study

ARI Cagla Buse , TUR Kobak Esma , DOMAC Mayda Fusun , KENANGIL Ozgen Gulay

Oxidative stress has been associated as an essential contributor to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent developments in the field of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) pathophysiology have led to a renewed interest in this field. As an antioxidant, uric acid (UA) has arisen as a potential neuroprotectant. Higher concentrations of UA are linked to reducing the risk of the development of the disease and preventing its progression. However, the expositions are unsatisfactory because the outcomes of these reports have not been consistent. This study is set out to assess the association of whether lower UA concentrations increased the PD risk by investigating its relationship with patients’ demographic and clinical data, and to determine whether previous studies are compatible with the Turkish-sampled population. Furthermore, we aimed to determine UA’s probability of being an early-stage diagnostic marker. A total of 305 patients and 100 healthy controls were included. Serum UA levels of patients and controls were compared with clinical features. We classified the patients into three motor subtypes and determined the disease severity by modified Hoehn&Yahr Staging Scale (mH&Y) and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-TR) was assessed for cognition. There were not any significant differences of age and sex between patients and controls (p=0.030, p=0.132). The mean UA was 5.06±1.33 mg/dL in patients and 5.46±1.44 in controls, and a statistical significance was detected (p=0.022). The mean MMSE-TR were 24.83±4.35 in patients and 27.09±2.13 in controls, and statictical significance was revealed (p=0.001). The mean duration of the disease was 6.31±4.16 years, mean UPDRS scores were 59.74±22.33, and mH&Y scores were 2.29±0.91. In binary comparisons, patients with tremor-dominant motor subtype had lower UA concentrations than controls (p=0.014). ROC curve analysis revealed UA’s cut-off as ≤9.15, the specificity was 99.3, the sensitivity was 10.0, and the area under the curve was 0.576 (p<0.005). Regression analysis revealed age as an independent risk factor on UA values. Oxidative stress might be a factor in the development of PD, and UA may be a possible prospective protecting factor in the clinical course of the disease. However, it does not affect the severity. Our results support that lower uric acid concentrations are associated with PD; however, it is not a powerful indicator for predicting PD risk. As we reveal more about UA and its effect in further investigations, its significant role will become well-defined.