Clinical Neuroscience

[Magda Neuwirth MD the top personality of Hungarian pediatric epileptology is departed on Mother’s Day of 2014]

SZERETŐ tanítványai

JULY 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(07-08)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Natalizumab therapy, 2013]

KARÁCSONY Mária, BENCSIK Krisztina, VÉCSEI László

[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic disease of the central nervous system in young adults. No curative therapy is known. Currently, six drugs are available that can reduce the activity of MS. The first-line drugs can completely reduce the activity of the disease in nearly two-thirds of the patients. In the remainder, who suffer from breakthrough disease, the condition of the patient worsens, and secondline therapies must be used. The second-line drug natalizumab exhibits almost double efficacy of the first-line drugs, but also have less favourable adverse effects. As a severe side-effect for instance, natalizumab carries the risk of the development of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), caused by a polyoma virus, the JC virus. There are three major risk factors for PML: an anti-JCV antibody status, a long duration of natalizumab treatment and prior immunosuppressant therapy. The lowest-risk group (1:14 286) comprises of patients who are anti-JCV antibody-negative, in whom the prior immunosuppressant use and duration of natalizumab therapy do not influence the risk of PML. With no prior immunosuppressant treatment, the incidence of PML increases to 1 in 192 patients after 2 years among those who are anti-JCV antibody-positive. These data may lead the physician to decide to discontinue natalizumab treatment. The half-life of natalizumab is three months; during this time other therapies can not be administered and the patients encounter the rebound effect: as the patients receiving natalizumab therapy displayed a high disease activity before treatment, the rebound effect can lead to relapses. After the termination of natalizumab secondline disease-modifying therapy with fingolimod may be introduce; no PML cases occur in response to fingolimod treatment. In the large majority of patients taking natalizumab who do not develop PML, this drug is highly effective and can prevent the progression of MS. The benefit of therapy and the risk of PML must be considered on an individual basis, with regard to the disease activity, the progression and the MRI activity, before natalizumab therapy is implemented.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Depression in Parkinson’s disease]

RIHMER Zoltán, GONDA Xénia, DÖME Péter

[The prevalence of major and minor depression in Parkinson’s disease is around 30-40% but, unfortunately, depression remains frequently underrecognized and often undertreated. However, recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease is essential for improving the cross-sectional picture and longitudinal course. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and different treatment modalities of depression in Parkinson’s disease.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Maybe it hurts more than you think! - Neonatal pain]

MIKOS Borbála

[Neonatal pain is often undertreated. This is based on the assumption that because of the immature nervous system and the lack of the myelinisation preterm and newborn does not feel pain. It is confirmed by a number of articles that the fetus and neonate can experience and respond to painful events. This publication gives a brief overview of the ontogeny of the pain, short-and long-term postnatal consequences, as well as the perception of the possibility of a particularly frail child population: premature infants and neonates, based on animal and human studies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The impact of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel on health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease]

KOVÁCS Norbert, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ÁCS Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, DELI Gabriella, JANSZKY József, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Background - The levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) therapy can improve the severe fluctuations associated with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our aim was to assess the improvement in the health related quality of life of PD patients treated with LCIG at University of Pécs. Methods - Eight PD patients were evaluated (age: 68.1±4.4 years, disease duration: 14,5±6,2 years, duration of fluctuations: 8.9±3.1 years). Before the initiation of LCIG treatment and 6 and 12 months later, the health-related quality of life (PDQ-39 and EQ-5D-5L), severity of PDrelated symptoms (MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Clinical Global Improvement - Severity) and major non-motor symptoms (PD Sleep Scale 2nd version: PDSS-2, Epworth Scale and Beck Depression Inventory: BDI) were assessed. Results - Health-related quality life improved after LCIG treatment measured by both EQ-5D-5L (from 0.257 to 0.662, p=0.009) and PDQ-39 (from 34 to 26 points, p=0.038). Meanwhile PD-related symptoms (MDS-UPDRS total score: from 105 points to 68 points, p<0.05) sleep quality (PDSS-2: from 25 to 22 points, p<0.05), daytime sleepiness (Epworth: from 12 to 7 points, p<0.05) and depression (BDI: from 20 to 15 points, p<0.05) also improved. Median ON time improved form 4.5 hours to 10.0 hours; whereas, the OFF time decreased from 4.5 to 0.5 hours (p<0.05). Conclusion - Both the quality of life and the clinical features of PD can be improved by LCIG treatment in advanced PD.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Single dose irradiation of defined region of rat brain with stereotactic BrainLab system]

FARKAS Róbert, KALINCSÁK Judit, KOVÁCS Péter, ARADI Mihály, BELLYEI Szabolcs, WEICZNER Roland, SEBESTYÉN Zsolt, PLANGÁR Imola, HIDEGHÉTY Katalin

[Background and purpose of our study was to develop a precise dose delivery technique for partial brain irradiation of two rats simultaneously. Methods - Using a self-developed frame stereotactic radiotherapy with single doses of 30-90 Gy was delivered to the frontal lobe of 22 animals. Tolerability and reproducibility of the method were evaluated and dosimetric measurements were conducted to verify the treatment plans. 2, 4 and 6 months after the irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and histopathological examinations were performed to detect late radiation induced biological changes. Results - Immobilization device provided excellent reproducibility and tolerability. Dosimetry revealed good corres - pondence with planned dose distribution, but the measured absorbed dose was 30% lower than the planned dose. During the 6 months follow-up period the procedure related death of subject animals after 30 Gy, 70 Gy and 90 Gy were 0%, 20% and 100% respectively. T2 signal and structural changes on MRI scans found to be dose and time dependent. While 30 Gy caused no detectable structural changes, 70 Gy lead to cystic necrosis in 2 cases after 4 month. Histopathology revealed signs of necrosis on macroscopic examination after 70 Gy in the high dose region involving both frontal lobes, and no obvious microscopic changes in the surrounding area were detectable. Conclusion - Our technique of rat cranial irradiation using human stereotactic system provided high accuracy of single dose delivery for a pair of small animals, resulting in brain injury in the defined area. This method proved to be a reproducible model for preclinical studies on radiation effects.]

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[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]

ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]

VÁLYI Péter

[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]

KAPÓCS Gábor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]