Clinical Neuroscience

[Investigating factors in the development of neuromorbidity in female phonophonists]

BÁLINT István1, HÓDOS Tibor1

JANUARY 01, 1966

Clinical Neuroscience - 1966;19(01)

[The authors used a statistical analysis to determine the place of the textile industry, and within it the spinning mills, in the structure of the industry's neuro-morbidity. This showed that spinning mills have been ranked second or third for several years with high rates of neuro-morbidity. An investigation of the role of occupational factors in causing this neuro-morbidity was carried out in one of the spinning mills with a high neuro-morbidity rate. The most relevant components of physical stress, static work, are identified as high temperatures, high relative humidity, insufficient lighting, high noise exposure, which are now technologically unjustified. Measurement data are provided for these. The dominant factor in psychological stress is considered to be the need for sustained attention and the need for constant attention-sharing. The lack of breaks between work periods is considered to be an indication of inadequate work and rest patterns. The results of the attention span and hand tremor tests of neurotic and control groups showed that neurotics were significantly more fatigued in the middle of the shift than controls. As a call to reduce the overall workload, the instrumental test results of the control subjects at the end of the shift were found to differ only non-significantly from those of the neurotics. ]

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[The significance of diagnostic errors in brain tumours]

GÁTAI György

[A more significant reduction in errors can only be achieved if the sources of error are made known and if education, organisation and the various disciplines are involved and assisted. We must take every opportunity to give the issue publicity commensurate with its importance. This is the third, but not the last, reason for discussing the diagnostic problems of brain tumours and the importance of early diagnosis. ]

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[Amino acid distribution in cerebrospinal fluid (I.) Arginine]

SZILÁGYI Á. Katalin, PATAKY István

[Colorimetric arginine determinations were performed in CSF cerebrospinalis and serum, which were found normal by routine laboratory methods. It was concluded that the conflicting values in the world literature could be explained by the site of CSF collection and the amount of CSF taken, because the arginine content of cysternal CSF is higher than that of lumbar CSF. A correlation has been found between the arginine level in lumbar CSF and the serum level found in the same individual. There also appears to be a numerical correlation between CSF arginine levels and age (decreasing progressively with advancing age), but this correlation is not statistically proven. ]

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[Changes in brain bioelectrical activity in experimental hyperoxia]

SZÁM István, NIKOLITS Ilona, GOTTSEGEN György

[The electroencephalogram of experimental rats exposed to oxygen at 3.7 atm - recorded by means of built-in cortical electrodes - shows coarse, non-specific amplitude and frequency changes and spike discharges. The onset of EEG changes precedes the onset of respiratory and cardiac impairment and the earliest phase of the development of 'hyperoxic' pulmonary oedema; arterial blood 02 saturation is also normal at this time. The sequestration of CO2 produced by the animals, and thus the prevention of CO2 rebreathing, delays the onset of EEG changes and partially prevents the development of spike potentials. Impaired bioelectrical activity in the brain is the earliest symptom of oxygen toxicity. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Large intracerebral aneurysm case]

EPSTEIN Ottó, VAATAY Irén

[The authors describe a case of a large intracerebral aneurysm in the right frontal lobe, which probably caused at least two small haemorrhages and neurological symptoms. In the end, it produced mainly psychiatric lesions in addition to milder neurological symptoms, and these required the patient to be admitted to a psychiatric ward. Death was caused by intercurrent bronchopneumonia, whereas at autopsy the aneurysm was intact and the symptoms observed were causally related to the location and size of the aneurysm and the pressure it exerted. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Carotid angiography in elderly and arteriosclerotic patients]

SZEGEDY László, HAITS Géza

[Authors report on 422 carotid angiographies performed in elderly patients with cerebrovascular damage. No complications were observed in any of the 482 angiographic studies. 64 patients showed marked improvement after angiography. Authors analyze the problems of angiography in vascular patients based on literature data and their own patient records. ]

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[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

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[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

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[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

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