Clinical Neuroscience

[Hydrocephalus-induced ventricular diverticulum in the cistern ambiens]

KAJTOR Ferenc1, HABERLAND Katalin1

MARCH 23, 1950

Clinical Neuroscience - 1950;3(01)

[The authors report 5 cases of cerebral ventricular dysfunction developed as a result of occlusive hydrocephalus, 3 of which with one or both lateral chambers and 2 traveling with the III. chamber. Clinical, pneumographic, macroscopic, and microscopic autopsy findings and the likely mechanism of diverticulum formation are described. It is found that the detection of a significant size diverticulum by pneumography is a well-marketed diagnostic and prognostic physiologically very favorable, although not easy, surgical solution.]


  1. Debreceni ideg- és elmeklinika



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Before setout...]

Z. I.

[The first psychiatric and neurological journal in Hungary is now launched. The support of the Academy of Sciences and the Medical-Health Trade Union made it possible to make up for the omission made by the pseudo-scientific cultural policy of the reactionary period. It has already happened in the past that Hungarian medicine started to flourish. Developments in the fields of neurophysiology, neurology and psychiatry began in the second half of the last century, during which Hungarian researchers were connected to the leading medical discoveries of the time in the world.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The value of newer liver function tests in cases of alcoholism chronicus ]

CSORBA Antal , LÁNG Sándor

[In mild cases of chronic alcoholism with newer liver function tests for liver damage can be detected in approx. 50%, in more severe clinical cases in 90%. In mild cases there is no globulin proliferation, in more severe cases it is most often.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Influence of blood glucose balance with ergotamine content (Gynergen)]

ZÁDOR Imre, KOVÁCS M. Erzsébet

[A review of the literature in recent years found no report on the effects of ergotamine (Gynergen) on blood glucose, but 20 years ago, Hetényi reported essentially similar results based on studies in two patients. He stressed that in all likelihood, Ergotamine does not delay intestinal absorption.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[New aspects of Friedreich's disease]


[4 clinical observations of Friedreich's disease. 3 male, 1 female: three "pure" forms, one with amyotrophic lat. sclerosis. Heredofamilial trait in 3 cases: two patients had pes excavatus in the brother, the second patient had Dupuytren's contacture of the little finger. The 3rd case had a marked myocardial laesio; this was absent in the others. This therefore does not support the hypothesis that myocarditis and neurological lesions are caused by a common toxic agent.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Familiaris myasthenia]


[The significantly higher prevalence of the pathology among women, menstruation, natural or artificial menopause, the undoubted influence of pregnancy, persistent thymus, etc., demonstrate the aetiological importance of endocrine factors. It is probable that the so-called constitutional factor is nothing more than an as yet unknown disorder of the endocrine system and that it forms the basis of the chemical mediator disorder.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Increased serum citrullinated histone H3 levels in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke

BAYAR Duran Muhammet , ŞIŞMAN Büşra Aysel , KORAL Gizem , ÇIRAK Selen , TÜZÜN Erdem , GÜNAYDIN Sefer , BAŞTAN Birgül

Prevalence of acute ische­mic stroke (AIS) is increased in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A proposed hypothesis is increased virus-induced propensity to hypercoagulation resulting in arterial thrombosis. Our aim was to provide evidence regarding the involvement of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) in COVID-19 related AIS. Twenty-six consecutively enrolled COVID-19+ pneumonia patients with AIS, 32 COVID-19+ pneumonia patients without AIS and 24 AIS patients without COVID-19 infection were included to the study. Clinical characteristics of recruited patients were collected. Serum levels of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit; a factor of NETosis), IL-8 and C5a (mediators associated with NETosis) were measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). H3Cit levels were significantly higher in COVID-19+ AIS patients, whereas all study groups showed comparable IL-8 and C5a levels. There were no significant differences among etiological subgroups of AIS patients with or without COVID-19. AIS patients with COVID-19 showed relatively increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, D-dimer, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels than control groups. H3Cit levels did not correlate with clinical/prognostic features and inflammation parameters. H3Cit and IL-8 levels were correlated in COVID-19 patients without stroke but not in COVID-19 positive or negative AIS patients. Increased levels of inflammation parameters and H3Cit in COVID-19 related AIS suggest that NETosis may cause susceptibility to arterial thrombosis. However, H3Cit levels do not correlate with clinical severity measures and inflammation parameters diminishing the prognostic biomarker value of NETosis factors. Moreover, the link between IL-8 and NETosis appears to be abolished in AIS.

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[RAAS inhibitors therapy – COVID-19 pandemic]


[Acute respiratory syndrome with various signs and outcomes caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the biggest challenge facing health systems worldwide today. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kinin-kallikrein systems and within these two endopeptidases (ACE and ACE2) play a crucial role in the developing clinical feature of COVID-19. Adverse effects of the ACE-stimulated Ang II/AT1R axis (oxidant, pro-inflammatory effect, vasoconstriction) are counterbalanced by the ACE2-induced AT2R and MasR activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effect, vasodilation). The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and systemic inflammation explains the impairment of ACE2 (as an important defence factor of the lungs) caused by the biding spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2, which decreases the ACE2 levels. In parallel, bradykinin production also increases and intensifies the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm through the BKB1 and BKB2 receptors. Since the RAAS inhibitors (ACEI, ARB) affect the two regulatory systems and enzymes at different sites and to different degrees, their role must urgently have been clarified in the COVID-19 since their use is essential and general of many population-wide diseases (hypertension, cardiovascular, renal and metabolic conditions). Based on pathophysiological and experimental data, it is reasonable to hypothesize that in COVID-19 with comorbidities, especially in the elderly, the decreased ACE2 expression may be restored by RAAS inhibitors and the missed or reduced protective effect may be revitalised. This protective effect applies to both RAAS inhibitors. Clinical trials clearly support the declared opinion of many international societies that the use of RAAS inhibitors does not increase the risk of the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in itself let alone the severe and critical cases. Accordingly, initiated RAAS inhibitor therapy not only may rather must be continued during the development of COVID-19.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Extraskeletal, intradural, non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma. Case report


Intracranial localization of Ewing’s sarcoma is considerably very rare. Herein, we present clinical and neuroimaging findings regarding a 4-year-old boy with intracranial Ewing’s sarcoma. He was born prematurely, suffered intraventricular haemorrhage, posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus developed, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted in the newborn period. The patient endured re­gular follow ups, no signs of shunt malfunction nor increased intracranial pressure were observed. The last neuroima­ging examination was performed at 8 months of age. Upon reaching the age of 4 years, repeated vomiting and focal seizures began, and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure were detected. A brain MRI depicted a left frontoparietal space-occupying lesion infiltrating the superior sagittal sinus. The patient underwent a craniotomy resulting in the total excision of the tumour. The histological examination of the tissue revealed a small round blue cell tumour. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of EWSR1 gene translocation with FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). No additional metastases were detected during the staging examinations. The patient was treated in accordance to the EuroEwing 99 protocol. Today, ten years onward, the patient is tumour and seizure free and has a reasonably high quality of life.