Clinical Neuroscience

[Frontotemporal dementia - Part I History, prevalence, clinical forms]

GALARIOTIS Vasilis, BÓDI Nikoletta, JANKA Zoltán, KÁLMÁN János

MAY 10, 2005

Clinical Neuroscience - 2005;58(05-06)

[The authors report a comprehensive publication consisting of three parts going into the details of history, prevalence, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, genetics, molecular pathomechanism, pathology, clinical diagnosis and treatment of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The first part of the present review deals with history, prevalence and clinical forms of FTD. The prototypical FTD with circumscribed atrophy was first described by Arnold Pick; Alois Alzheimer found the intraneural inclusions in the patients’ brain. Later it was recognised that many patients had neither the atrophy nor the cellular changes, but genetic mutations have been identified. Frontotemporal dementia is a degenerative condition with unknown etiology in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain. It is a progressive neurobehavioral syndrome characterized by early decline in social interpersonal conduct, early impairment in the regulation of personal conduct, early emotional blunting, and early loss of insight. There are no reliable epidemiological studies on the prevalence of FTD, but it is well-accepted that FTD is a common cause for dementia before the age of 65 (it constitues approximately five percent of all irreversible dementias). The nomenclature of the FTD has been confusing and continues to be. Three major clinical syndromes can be identified: 1 frontal variant FTD (dementia of frontal type) in which changes in social behavior and personality predominate, 2. in semantic dementia (progressive fluent aphasia) there is a breakdown in the conceptual database which underlies language production and comprehension, 3. in progressive nonfluent aphasia the phonologic and syntactic components of language are affected. The authors report two cases, which can point to clinical symptoms and forms, and mention the problems of the differential diagnosis and therapy.]

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