Clinical Neuroscience

[Effect of metopirone on cerebral electrical activity]

FREY Zsuzs1, HALMY László1

JANUARY 01, 1967

Clinical Neuroscience - 1967;20(01)

[Authors have studied the effects of Metopiron on brain electrical activity in endocrinology patients. In 5 of 13 patients studied, regularisation of electrogenesis was observed. It is hypothesized that the resulting lesion is due to a direct or indirect effect of Metopirone on the hypothalamus. In their further conclusions, they point to the possibility of a relationship between diurnal fluctuations in ACTH synthesis and the chronometric function of alpha-rhytmus.]


  1. Orvostovábbképző Intézet Ideggyógyászati Tanszékeés IV. sz. Belgyógyászati Tanszéke



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Changes in the clinical picture of neurological diseases due to drug therapy]


[In our medical practice, we often do not fully and correctly use all the possibilities of drug therapy. Medical thinking tends to be biased towards simple, easy-to-remember, templated treatment procedures. But in any case, we will only exhaust the potential of drug therapy if, on the basis of careful consideration of all the circumstances, we know the mechanism of action of the drug and the pathophysiology of the disease, we give the right drug at the right time, in the most appropriate dose, distribution and manner. Perhaps not enough emphasis is placed in university clinical education on the principles of drug therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuropathological lesions in animal studies of B12-avitaminosis]

LEHOCZKY Tibor, SÓS József, HALASI Margit

[induced central and peripheral nervous system lesions in white rats with B. deficiency. These were essentially identical to the typical neuropathological lesions of anaemia perniciosa (myelopathy, neuronal proliferation). The discrepancy, such as the rare or absent glial reactions and the extensive and severe damage to nerve cells, was explained by the more intense biochemical effects of experimental B12 deficiency. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical significance of the Circulus arteriosus Willisi with special reference to hypoplasia]


[After a detailed anatomical description of the circulus arteriosus Willisi, the first part of the paper describes the occurrence of hypoplasia in each branch. In the second part, the dynamic characteristics of the blood circulating in the CAW are used to illustrate the crucial regulatory, distributive and collateral role of the formula in the first stage of cerebral circulation. In the third part, the clinical relevance of anomalies (mainly hypoplasia) is highlighted. A study of the brains of 100 cerebrovascular and 100 non-cerebrovascular deceased individuals shows the well-known fact that CAW anomalies are twice as common in cerebrovascular diseases as in non-vascular diseases. It describes the predisposing, preforming, pathoplastic effects of anomalies in emollients, haemorrhages and thromboses. The frequent occurrence of anomalies is known in pituitary aneurysms, and anomalies often allow the development of severe arteriosclerosis in the basal vessels, if the mechanical theory of anteriosclerosis is considered. In relation to general CAW hypoplasia, he lists 19 cases of vascular injury or other disease, functionally modified by the anomaly. Among the latter, he points out the atypical course of three endogenous pathologies in particular. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical interpretation of Evipan sleep-activated EEG abnormalities in non-epileptic psychiatric patients]


[Authors search for correlation between activated EEG abnormalities in 86 patients and various non-epileptic psychiatric disorders. They hypothesize organic brain damage and varying degrees of cerebral atrophy as causal factors underlying chronic clinical syndromes classified as neurosis - psychopathy - psychosis. It is not considered acceptable to extend the concept of epilepsy to all those with abnormal EEG findings without clinical epileptic manifestations. Linked to this, the question of the specificity of the seizure potential is raised. They include in the concept of "organic psychopathy" those with EEG abnormalities and PEG findings suggestive of a cerebral dysfunction, which may take other forms besides personality changes, due to pathoplastic factors. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Five recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhages from a cerebrovascular arterio-venous vessel]


[The authors describe a 45-year-old female patient who has been clinically treated 5 times in 15 years for recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhages. The clinical interest of the case is given by the good general condition of the patient and her relatively well-preserved personality during the time between each bleeding episode. The bleeding was due to an arteriovenous aneurysm in the upper third of the mesencephalon. Presumably, this aneurysm, in addition to the recurrent bleeding, may have played a role in the development of the very marked cerebral atrophy and the strikingly severe arteriosclerotic vascular lesions by altering the hemodynamic relationships. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study


Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.