Clinical Neuroscience

[Changes in brain bioelectrical activity in experimental hyperoxia]


JANUARY 01, 1966

Clinical Neuroscience - 1966;19(01)

[The electroencephalogram of experimental rats exposed to oxygen at 3.7 atm - recorded by means of built-in cortical electrodes - shows coarse, non-specific amplitude and frequency changes and spike discharges. The onset of EEG changes precedes the onset of respiratory and cardiac impairment and the earliest phase of the development of 'hyperoxic' pulmonary oedema; arterial blood 02 saturation is also normal at this time. The sequestration of CO2 produced by the animals, and thus the prevention of CO2 rebreathing, delays the onset of EEG changes and partially prevents the development of spike potentials. Impaired bioelectrical activity in the brain is the earliest symptom of oxygen toxicity. ]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[The significance of diagnostic errors in brain tumours]

GÁTAI György

[A more significant reduction in errors can only be achieved if the sources of error are made known and if education, organisation and the various disciplines are involved and assisted. We must take every opportunity to give the issue publicity commensurate with its importance. This is the third, but not the last, reason for discussing the diagnostic problems of brain tumours and the importance of early diagnosis. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Investigating factors in the development of neuromorbidity in female phonophonists]

BÁLINT István, HÓDOS Tibor

[The authors used a statistical analysis to determine the place of the textile industry, and within it the spinning mills, in the structure of the industry's neuro-morbidity. This showed that spinning mills have been ranked second or third for several years with high rates of neuro-morbidity. An investigation of the role of occupational factors in causing this neuro-morbidity was carried out in one of the spinning mills with a high neuro-morbidity rate. The most relevant components of physical stress, static work, are identified as high temperatures, high relative humidity, insufficient lighting, high noise exposure, which are now technologically unjustified. Measurement data are provided for these. The dominant factor in psychological stress is considered to be the need for sustained attention and the need for constant attention-sharing. The lack of breaks between work periods is considered to be an indication of inadequate work and rest patterns. The results of the attention span and hand tremor tests of neurotic and control groups showed that neurotics were significantly more fatigued in the middle of the shift than controls. As a call to reduce the overall workload, the instrumental test results of the control subjects at the end of the shift were found to differ only non-significantly from those of the neurotics. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Amino acid distribution in cerebrospinal fluid (I.) Arginine]

SZILÁGYI Á. Katalin, PATAKY István

[Colorimetric arginine determinations were performed in CSF cerebrospinalis and serum, which were found normal by routine laboratory methods. It was concluded that the conflicting values in the world literature could be explained by the site of CSF collection and the amount of CSF taken, because the arginine content of cysternal CSF is higher than that of lumbar CSF. A correlation has been found between the arginine level in lumbar CSF and the serum level found in the same individual. There also appears to be a numerical correlation between CSF arginine levels and age (decreasing progressively with advancing age), but this correlation is not statistically proven. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Large intracerebral aneurysm case]


[The authors describe a case of a large intracerebral aneurysm in the right frontal lobe, which probably caused at least two small haemorrhages and neurological symptoms. In the end, it produced mainly psychiatric lesions in addition to milder neurological symptoms, and these required the patient to be admitted to a psychiatric ward. Death was caused by intercurrent bronchopneumonia, whereas at autopsy the aneurysm was intact and the symptoms observed were causally related to the location and size of the aneurysm and the pressure it exerted. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Carotid angiography in elderly and arteriosclerotic patients]


[Authors report on 422 carotid angiographies performed in elderly patients with cerebrovascular damage. No complications were observed in any of the 482 angiographic studies. 64 patients showed marked improvement after angiography. Authors analyze the problems of angiography in vascular patients based on literature data and their own patient records. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Is the implementation of Vojta therapy associated with faster gross motor development in children with cerebral palsy? ]


[Vojta therapy has been reported as clinically beneficial for strength, movement and gross motor activities in individual cases and is being included within the second of three levels of evidence in interventions for cerebral palsy. The goal of this study is to understand the effect of Vojta therapy on the gross motor function. Our clinical trial followed a one group, pre-post design to quantify rates of changes in GMFM-88 after a two-months period undergoing Vojta therapy. A total of 16 patients were recruited. Post-intervention acceleration rates of GMFM-88-items acquisition (0.005; p<0.001) and Locomotor Stages (1.063; p<0.0001) increased significatively following Vojta the­rapy intervention. In this study, Vojta therapy has shown to accelerate the acquisition of GMFM-88-items and Loco­motor Stages in children with cerebral palsy younger than 18 months. Because functional training was not utilised, and other non-Vojta therapy intervention did not influence the outcome, Vojta therapy seems to activate the postural control required to achieve uncompleted GMFM-88-items. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Results of a national survey in the field of primary care]

HIRDI Henriett Éva, KÁLMÁNNÉ Simon Mária, BALOGH Zoltán

[To identify recent national trends in the employment and earnings of nursing personnel in primary healthcare and determine whether salaries and wage growth are associated with changes in the employment. The cross-sectional survey was conducted between 17 May 2021 and 17 June 2021 among nurses working in general, child and family practices, and dental practices selected using a random, sampling method (N=2007). The data gathering took place using a web-based, anonymous, self-completion questionnaire. The authors analysed the gathered data with Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22.0 software, employing descriptive statistical methods. Participants are highly experienced, with 80% reporting more than 16 years of experience. 7.9% of nurses are educated at or above the baccalaureate level. The majority (89.5%) work full-time as employees of their organizations (95.4%). The GP’s territorial care obligation disparities in nurses salaries documented here should spark healthcare policymakers to conduct pay equity assessments of employees’ salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. The study findings also indicate that tailoring salaries to qualification for the individual nurses may aid in recruiting and retaining nurses in practice. ]