Clinical Neuroscience

[Cerebral tumor detection by brain scintigraphy ]

TÓTH Gábor1, SZÉPLAKI Zoltán1, ANTÓNY Miklós1

APRIL 01, 1985

Clinical Neuroscience - 1985;38(04)

[The authors report on brain scintigraphy of 71 patients with brain tumors. They analyze their results according to localization and histological type. They highlight that hemangiomas, meningiomas, and supra tentorial gliomas are well visualized, cerebral metastases to a lesser extent. ]

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  1. Központi Állami Kórház és Rendelőintézet Neurológiai Osztály

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[On model theories of endogenous psychoses]

SIMKÓ Alfréd

[The author presents variations in the interpretation of so-called "endogenous" psychoses, from the vague notion of "heredodegeneration" to the nosological and axial-syndromic principle and methodologies based on the progression picture, pointing to the increasing importance of the dominant role of biological, psychopathological and social perspectives. In the models, the author sees relatively valid hypothesis constructs intended to bring together the larger body of knowledge on a topic. Their disadvantage is that their categorical validity is determined solely by their own systematising principle: therefore, models that are too closed are in danger of becoming rigid and dogmatic. Without claiming to be exhaustive, the author only sketches out the brain topological, constitutive and character typological, descriptive-phenomenological, form-phenomenological, psychoanalytic, existential-anthropological, genetic, cybernetic, and broader biological and sociogenetic models of endogenous psychoses. It highlights the importance of their flexibility, resolvability and synthesizability, without which their clinical usefulness, especially in the context of endogenous psychoses, becomes questionable. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Indications for transoral neurosurgery]

PÁSZTOR Emil, VAJDA János, PIFFKÓ Pál, GÁDOR Ildikó

[The microscopic surgical technique has made it possible to operate relatively safely on pathological lesions located in the ventral part of the craniocervical transition, often causing severe bulbar symptoms. The indications for this operation are discussed based on the experience of 11 patients operated on with transoral surgery. ]

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[Differential diagnostic approach to paranoid syndromes and schizophrenia paranoid from the clinician's perspective]

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[The author discusses the differential diagnostic problems of schizophrenia paranoids and paranoid syndromes from the clinician's perspective and provides a diagnostic workup of a 5-year discharge from the hospital. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The pathogenetic role of the "stump" of the occluded internal carotid artery - the external carotid artery in the context of surgery for stenosis]

BODOSI Mihály, MÉREI Tibor

[After occlusion of the internal carotid artery, focal ischemic symptoms persist in a quarter of patients. This may be due to an ulcerated surface of the stump of the internal carotid artery or to clots filling the inlet of the occluded artery, and emboli from this may enter the intracranial vessels via the internal carotid artery anastomoses. Further evidence for this hypothesis is provided by presenting the material of 10 patients in whom endarterectomy was justified in preparation for extra-intracranial anastomosis surgery to narrow the external carotid artery inlet. In this way, the carotid fork can be studied. The findings emphasize the pathogenetic role of the carotid stump and suggest its excision when endarterectomy of the external carotid artery is warranted anyway. However, it is also considered to be an option when the ulcerated entrance of the carotid stump is at risk of further embolization. Surgical management is described. ]

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[Micro-tumour mimicking symptoms of cervical disc herniation in the coccygeal fossa (Problems of clinical and histopathological diagnosis)]

GALLYAS Ferenc, GEDEON László, MAJERSZKI Klára, MÉREI F. Tibor

[The clinical and pathological issues of the C6 root mycrotum of the b.o. mimicking the symptoms of a herniated disc are analysed. literature on the histopathology of neurinomas and neurofibromas is summarised. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

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Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.