Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

GOMBI Róza

DECEMBER 01, 1968

Clinical Neuroscience - 1968;21(12)

[The author presents Bechtereva, N. P., Bondarchuk, A. N., Smirnov, B. M. and Trohachev, A. 1.: Physiology and pathophysiology of deep structures of the human brain.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Principal stages in studying the problem of physiological mechanisms of mental activity in man

N. P. Bechtereva, A. Tchernysheva

Much of what happens in the brain during mental activity - especially in the most complex living tissue, the human brain - is still unclear. A major merit of the Pavlovian school is the elucidation of the physiological mechanisms that determine the diverse manifestations of the probable brain anatomofunctional schema of conditioned reflex activity, shedding light on the trait-, environment- and organism-dependent specificities of these mechanisms. An attempt has been made to adapt the conditional reflex methodology to humans in order to study higher nervous activity.

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[Seduxen treatment in certain neurological diseases (neurosis, pain, muscle spasm)]

LEHOCZKY Tibor

[Seduxen 5 mg tabl., produced by Kőbánya Pharmaceuticals, has been used in clinical therapeutic trials. Out of 100 patients in the ward, 77 were in different groups of neurasthenia, - neurosis, 7 patients were treated for pain caused by organic disease, 16 for muscle spasm and contracture. He discusses the 8 groups of neurasthenia-neurosis listed and finds that the highest improvement rates were in the reactiv and vasovegetative groups, 82.7% in the former and 83.3% in the latter. The overall improvement rate for all groups was 77.8%. The 75% improvement in neurasthenia anxiosa is highlighted, following the anxiolytic effect of diazepam highlighted by both foreign and national researchers. These results suggest that Seduxen is a very good tranquillant drug, which, at the right dose (3 X 14, 3 X 12, 3 X 1 tablets daily), has a sedative effect without side effects. Seduxen also has a direct analgesic and analgesic effect, not only in arthritis and arthrosis of various types, but also in polyneuritis, neuritis and neuralgia. Seduxen is an excellent muscle relaxant, which has been observed in 13 of its 16 organic patients to a marked degree and in three to a moderate degree; by reducing the dose sufficiently, a detrimental degree of muscle weakness can be avoided. Dose: 3x1/2 tablets daily is recommended as the initial dose, but in the vast majority of patients 3x1 tablets daily was adequate; in some cases 3x 14 tablets daily proved beneficial. Experience has shown that the side effects of Seduxen are mild, exceeding those of known tranquillant drugs only in cases of overdose or individual hypersensitivity. A certain degree of drowsiness is relatively common, but this, like muscle hypotension in paretic patients, can be avoided by reducing the dose appropriately. ]

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[Serum glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase activity in muscle diseases]

LIPCSEY Attila, SZABADI Elemér, FEKETE Istvánné

[The authors measured GOT enzyme activity in serum from patients with muscle atrophy of various origins (myogenic and neurogenic atrophy) and in serum from individuals with various neurological diseases. Their experience has shown that in myogenic diseases, if the presence of other diseases associated with parenchymal breakdown can be excluded, the measurement of GOT activation can be used to support the myogenic nature of the process.]

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[Further studies to detect human-brain corticosteroid fractions]

FAZEKAS I. Gyula, FAZEKAS Attila

[1. Lobar pneumonia, sudden cardiac death from paralysis, sudden cardiac death from paralysis in alcoholic state, self-harm, lightning strike, apoplexy cerebri, carcinosis peritonei, isonicide poisoning, cyanide poisoning, barbiturate poisoning, CO poisoning, Wofatox poisoning, alcohol poisoning+freezing deaths 26-92 years of age from 5 brain areas of 18 people (11 males and 7 females) were extracted 1 1/2-10 h after death, paper chromatographed in Bush 5 system, followed by chromatography in 2 n NaOH and 0.1% tetrasolium blue 9: 1. Evaluation was based on the tetrasolium blue reaction, NaOH fluorescence, Rf. values, standards and native blue fluorescence. 2 Brain extracts were run with different amounts of tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisol, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone as standards. The brain areas tested were : 1. bridge+brain, 2. cerebellum, 3. cerebellar nuclei, 4. cerebral cortex, 5. cerebral white matter. 3. 10 corticosteroid fractions were identified in total, 6 fractions were all identical to the standards, the other 4 unidentified steroids were labelled X1, X2, X3, X4. 4. These steroids were detected in different qualities and quantities in different brain areas depending on the deaths. 5. cortisol (=hydrocortisone) was detected in almost all brain areas tested in all 18 cases. Cortisol was found in most brain areas of those who died of heart failure, self-harm, lightning, apoplexy cerebri and various poisonings, but could not be detected in brain areas of those who died of heart failure in an alcoholic state and of cyanide poisoning. Other fractions were present in varying numbers and quantities in different brain areas. 6. Most fractures and the largest number were found in the brain areas of those who died of carcinosis peritonei and pneumonia. Fewest fractures and least amount were found in brain areas of those who died of cardiac arrest in alcoholic state and various intoxications in alcoholic state, and alcohol poisoning + frostbite. 7. Consistent with our previous animal studies and our studies on human subjects, we observed in the present study that alcohol induced significantly fewer corticosteroid fractions and quantities in all areas of the human brain compared to those in the non-alcoholic state. 8. In the cases studied, the total steroid content of each brain area does not show a consistent quantitative pattern that is characteristic of each death. 9. No lawful correlations between age, sex, adrenal weight, body weight, body height and the quantity and quality of corticosteroid content in the brain were found. 10. No decrease in brain corticosteroid content within 10 hours after death was observed with increasing time.]

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[Tuberous sclerosis and Sturge - Weber disease co-incidence]

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[Data from an in vivo 14-year-old female patient with predominant symptoms of tuberous sclerosis and concomitant lesions suggestive of Sturge-Weber disease are presented, along with a family history of multiple neurological lesions and tumour formation. In the context of the co-detection of two very rare conditions, we wished to draw attention to the importance of dealing with neuroectodermal disorders. We also review the literature on the various dysgenetic abnormalities associated with the two disorders. ]

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[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

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[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]

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REM sleep, REM parasomnias, REM sleep behaviour disorder

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We review the literature on REM parasomnias, and their the underlying mechanisms. Several REM parasomnias are consistent with sleep dissociations, where certain elements of the REM sleep pattern emerge in an inadequate time (sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and cataplexy) or are absent/partial in their normal REM sleep time (REM sleep without atonia, underlying REM sleep behavior disorder). The rest of REM parasomnias (sleep related painful erection, catathrenia) may have other still unclear mechanisms. REM parasomnias deserve attention, because in addition to disturbing sleep and causing injuries, they may shed light on REM sleep functions as well as the heterogeneous etiologies of parasomnias. One of them, REM sleep behavior disorder has special importance as a warning sign of evolving neurodegenerative conditions mainly synucleinopathies (some cases synucleinopathies themselves) and it is a model parasomnia revealing that parasomnias may have by autoimmune, iatrogenic and even psychosomatic etiologies.

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Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

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Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

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