Clinical Neuroscience

[Adult onset panencephalitis nodosa with retinal nodule and unusual course]

POHL Ödön1, REMENÁR László1, HAITS Géza1

MAY 01, 1966

Clinical Neuroscience - 1966;19(05)

[The authors describe the case of a 20-year-old man whose pathological findings showed a typhoid picture of panencephalitis nodosa. A clinically remarkable atypical course was noted. The first symptom, 3 years before death, was severe visual loss in the right and then in the left eye. Retinal oedema, haemorrhages, very marked retinal vasoconstriction, vascular tympanic visual field loss, later papillary decolorization and chorioretinitis foci were observed. Psychiatric features were a slow intellectual decline and a great lack of motivation in the weeks preceding death, reminiscent of catatonic stupor. From a neurological point of view, it is emphasised that the abnormal movements appeared only in the terminal stage, and then only in an abortive form. The authors hypothesise the possibility of an atypical ocular onset in panencephalitis nodosa on the basis of early ocular signs and attribute permeability-pathological and anoxia-vascular mechanisms for the development of both ocular and cerebral lesions.]


  1. BOTE Psychiatriai klinika és az Országos Idegsebészeti Tudományos Intézet szemészeti osztálya



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Clinical Neuroscience

[The state of rehabilitation of the mentally ill in Hungary ]


[There is a long tradition of rehabilitation and one of its most important tools, occupational therapy, in the care of the mentally ill, both in our country and around the world. Nevertheless, the rehabilitation of the mentally ill and the use of occupational therapy in mental wards have not developed sufficiently.]

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[Catheter-based method of vertebral angiography]


[The author describes a catheter-based method of vertebral angiography performed through the brachial artery without complications in 110 cases. ]

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[A kortikoszteroid-pszichózisokról]


[The authors describe three cases of corticosteroid depression and typologically separate these pictures from the major depressive forms in the psychiatric literature.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Differential diagnostic problems of debilitas and imbecillitas]


[Oligophrenia is a persistent intellectual and personality development disorder with a deficit of mental decline, caused by organic damage to the central nervous system between about the ages of 0 and 3 or 4. Therefore, we wanted to differentiate debilis from imbecilis not only by differences in intellectual level but also by differences in personality traits. Thus, the debilis are characterized by: being teachable in basic operations, being formally well spoken, being emotionally infantile, having a formal sense of community, being attached to their families until puberty, lacking intellectual emotions. They are motivated in their tantrums, are emotionally unstable, and are easily neuroticised due to their reduced tolerance skills. Their instinct for species preservation is characterised by a drive for convention, self-preservation tends to occur only at puberty. Their egotism makes them incapable of serious friendship. Their willpower is reduced and they need more control when encouraged. They have active, even focused attention, but need more and more stimuli to maintain it. Their ability to remember is characterised by an inability to remember dependencies, and they are therefore self-conscious. In general, we can speak of the reproductive intellect of the retarded. Their thinking is primitive and stereotyped. IQ: between 0.85 and 0.7, according to W. Stern. They are capable of stereotypical work independently. Imbecilic: movement is characterised by inhibition or staggering and they cannot be taught to write continuously. Speech: speech disorders of a grammatical nature (speech without verbs or formulas). No sense of community. Generally attached to the family, no intellectual sense of course. Affect lability, lack of motivation in outbursts of anger. Persistent depression is rare. Self- and species-preserving instincts may be satisfied at the cost of aggression. They have no need for mates. Their will life is abnormally diminished, they are incapable of sustained activity and are highly suggestible. They have only passive attention. Their memory for words and numbers is so poor that they have difficulty learning words and confuse their meanings. They cannot be taught the four basic operations. We cannot even talk about reproductive intelligence at school age. They have some elements of objective thinking in their thinking. IQ: between 0.7 and 0.4 according to W. Stern. They are capable of stereotyped work only under constant control and guidance. We wish to emphasise once again that we do not consider it possible to separate the debilitated from the imbecilic on the basis of age of intelligence alone, but that this can only be done by taking into account all personality traits. ]

Clinical Neuroscience


ZSAKÓ István

[The author reports on the Hungarian medical history of family care of the mentally ill.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

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Clinical Neuroscience

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Clinical Neuroscience

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]